–Allegro–Andante moderato–Minuet and Trio–Allegro
Symphony, No. 92 in G Major (Oxford, 1789)•Performed at Oxford when Haydn received an honorary doctorate in 1791•This work illustrates the basic principles of symphonic structure.
First-movement form•First movements typically alternate stable and unstable periods.•Stable periods–Statements of the primary, secondary, and closing material–Usually in balanced, four-measure phrases set off by cadences
First-movement form•Unstable periods–Mainly transitions and developments–Often scored for full orchestra–Characterized by bustling rhythmic energy, sequences, modulation, overlapping phrases, and avoidance of cadences•Slow introductions are usually unstable.
Views of first-movement form
Exposition•Opening theme–Usually repeated immediately–Turns of harmony often steer the music in a new direction.•Transition or bridge–The harmony modulates to the dominant or relative major or minor.–Usually loud with dramatic, rushing figures
Exposition•Second thematic section–Usually lightly scored, melodically distinctive, and harmonically stable–Most symphonies of the 1770s and 1780s have contrasting material.–In later symphonies, Haydn based the second thematic section on the opening material.
Exposition•Closing section–The exposition ends with the full orchestra playing a cadential, repetitive, vigorous figure.–The material may recall earlier themes, but it is usually distinct from the primary and secondary subjects.–Sometimes the secondary key section is devoted to the closing material.
Development•Rarely introduces new thematic ideas•Begins with a restatement of the opening subject, transitional material, or one of the other subjects•Motives from the exposition are manipulated, often in counterpoint.•Abrupt changes and sudden silences are frequent.•Over the course of his career, Haydn increased the length and artfulness of the development.
Recapitulation•An extended dominant pedal often precedes the recapitulation.•Sometimes Haydn disguises the arrival.•The opening statement is frequently rescored.•All the material of the exposition returns in the tonic.•Haydn often intensifies and animates the transition by simulating a modulation.•The secondary and closing themes may be given more emphasis than in the exposition.
Other movements•Slow movement–Tends to feature a calm and gentle melody
Slow movement•Common forms–Sonata form without repeats–Theme and variations–ABA•The Oxford has a songlike theme, a dramatic middle section in the tonic minor, and an abbreviated reprise.•Minor sections and quiet codas are common in Haydn’s later symphonies.
Minuet and trio•Shorter and more popular than the other movements•The overall structure is ABA: minuet–trio– minuet.
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