Each society to assume the rightness of their own

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each society to assume the rightness of their own customs and practices and the inferiority, immorality, or irrationality of those found in other societies The Globalization of Culture The spread of one society’s cultural characteristics to another is called cultural diffusion National boundaries and traditional institutions are becoming increasingly obsolete, resulting in what we might call global culture While the forces of globalization are relentless, the opposite forces of localism and parochialism are also at work “Jihad vs McDonaldization” This resistance to globalization and nationalistic resurgence is found not only in the Islamic world but also among warring factions in places like the Sudan, Croatia, Macedonia, and the Philippines
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However, while the world moves toward a secular Western culture, there are ethnic and religious enclaves that reject the secular modernity of the West Fundamentalist religion: adamantly opposed to many of the most positive values of modern society Thus, the world is faced with contradictory trends One is toward convergence- toward a common language, acceptance of science and rationality, and a sense of pluralism and inclusion But the processes of globalization trigger movements that create localized, cultural-specific identities, emphasizing difference and exclusion Values Because all the components of culture are essential for an understanding of the constraints on human behavior, perhaps the quickest way to reach this understanding is to focus on its values Human beings are valuing beings - they continually evaluate themselves and other people The primary task for the participant observer interested in societal values is to determine what the values are Ex - Toward what do most people often direct their action? A second technique is to determine the choices that people make consistently. Third (used typically by social scientists) is to find out through interviews or written questionnaires what people say is good, bad, moral, immoral, desirable, or undesirable A problem in the study of values exists because there are sometimes discrepancies between values and actual behavior One may also observe the reward-punishment system of the society Closely related to the reward-punishment system are the actions that cause individuals to feel guilt or shame or actions that bring about ego enhancement Individuals feel guilt or shame because they have internalized the norms and values of society Values as Sources of Societal Integration and Social Problems Protestant Ethic : the religious belief emphasizing hard work and continual striving to prove that one is saved US culture Geography, religious heritage, and history have combined to provide a distinctive set of values However, there are several caveats that should be mentioned The tremendous diversity of the US precludes and universal holding of values
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