changes that had been observed. Nothing was to be gained by adding to the volume of work except to delay implementation of steps to counteract the problems.The second emphasis, that good science had not been done, flies in the face of the scientific process. No scientist would want to be accused of doing "bad" science as that would be very damaging to his orher career. Even more to the point, the process of doing science is self-correcting. After completing research, scientists seek to have their work published in peer-reviewed journals. In those journals peersclosely examine and comment on the research and results. When the process is completed, there exists a general agreement on the reliability of the data.PTS:1DIF:ModerateOBJ:Critical ThinkingTOP:2-1 What Do Scientists Do? 2.Explain how the human body is intimately connected to the two laws of thermodynamics. ANS:The first law of thermodynamics says that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only transformed. This is the basis of the flow of energy from the sun through living systems on earth, including humans. We take in energy in the form of chemicals assembled by other living organisms and transform it, using the energy to do the many things required to live. If any living organism fails totake in and transform energy for their purposes, the second law of thermodynamics takes over. The second law says entropy (randomness or disorder) tends to increase in energy systems. In shortened form, the second law means we will die and decompose. Energy is required to keep a system functioning. When the system is no longer taking in energy, randomness or disorder will increase.PTS:1DIF:ModerateOBJ:Critical ThinkingTOP:2-4 What Is Energy and What Happens When It Undergoes Change?CH 2: SCIENCE, MATTER, ENERGY, AND SYSTEMS43
3.After looking at the figure above, explain the significant difference that occurred between 1966 and 1970 in terms of the two lines representing the control watershed and the experimental watershed.ANS:The line labeled "Disturbed (experimental) watershed" represents the level of loss of nitrates followingthe removal of vegetation in the experimental watershed. Without vegetation the soil rapidly lost the nitrates to rainfall until they were substantially gone.PTS:1DIF:EasyOBJ:Critical ThinkingTOP:Figure 2-6 2-2 What Is Matter? 4.Much of the energy produced is lost before it can become useful. Explain how energy efficiency, or energy productivity, and the second law of thermodynamics may be useful in a discussion with anotherperson on how to reduce CO2and other greenhouse gas emissions.
- Spring '12
- Energy, pts