Eg iraq saddam hussein was known as the butcher of

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killing of street children as well as his “shoot to kill” policy. - Eg: Iraq - Saddam Hussein was known as “the butcher of Baghdad” for his brutality but his rule by terror ensured that the many factions and sects in Iraq (Sunni, Shiite, Kurds) were kept in check. This ensured that Iraq was able to maintain relative political and social stability under his reign (1979-2003). As soon as he was executed in 2006, Iraq became a country filled with turmoil due to the many factions and warlords competing for power - Eg: Singapore: Lee Kuan Yew hardliner stance and use of the ISA (Internal Security Act) in the past, led to Singaporeans being very fearful of dissenting against the PAP. This led to a stable political system and society - Other examples: Margaret Thatcher, Stalin - In many of these examples, had these leaders chosen to take the softer/more popular approach, their countries would not have been able to achieve such rapid industrialisation/ drastic fall in crime rates/ political stability. 2) It is more important for leaders to be feared than popular as often this will result in a strong signal sent to neighbouring countries and the world that they are not to be trifled with and hence ensures the sovereignty and hegemony of the country -When leaders are feared they convey that they are very powerful. - This is often combined with the sense of possessing hard power – strong military, nuclear weapons etc. They pose the threat of military intervention and/or economic sanctions.
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-Hence this fear enables the tyrant / dictator to maintain an aura of being invincible and not to be trifled with which helps to ensure the sovereignty of their countries -Eg: Kim Jong Un, Kim Jong Il, Saddam Hussein etc Points for B) Reasons why a combination of fear and popularity is required 1) Due to the changing demographics of the world today, it is as important to be popular as ruling by fear alone will result in one losing the ability to garner the support of the citizens/populace which will result in the society going into turmoil - Most countries are moving towards democracy and even countries like China who are theoretically communist have included many democratic policies within their country - This is due to the changing demographics of the world today. More citizens are well off and better educated and aware of their rights and are unwilling to simply be coerced into doing what their leaders tell them to do. The younger generation want to be heard and want to have their opinions be taken into consideration especially in this age of technology where social media allows the posting of thoughts and coordination of protests. - [Retaliation by the people] In authoritarian regimes where leaders rule by fear, resentment may build up over time due to the growing awareness of rights that they’ve been systemically denied, and angry mobs now have within their hands the power to topple dictators. -Eg: Arab Spring: Arab states’ leaders such as those from Tunisia, Egypt, Libya Yemen faced uprising due to the young standing up against them and were either overthrown or killed (Gaddafi, Hosni Mubarak, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali etc) 2) Ruling by fear also has the potential to invite criticism from other countries for human rights violations. Such criticism can strain bilateral ties, and in worse
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