water loving, polar molecules 25. Hydrophobica.water hating, non-polar molecules (ex. Plasma membrane is hydrophobic)26. Amphipathica.One molecule that is both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, portions of the molecule is either water loving or water hating. (ex. Membrane phospholipids= they have amphipathic bilayers of plasma membranes 27. It’s good that glucose dissolves in water because 90% of our plasma is water; glucose isour gas (the fuel that makes a car run, glucose must travel through our “gas lines”.
28. Amino acids are polar also 29. Lipids are hydrophobic so we have to form spheres that are amphipathic molecules, so the spheres that attract the lipids because some portions of it are hydrophilic, so we takethe lipids and cram them inside the spheres. The outside portion of the sphere is hydrophilic and they interact with the water in our plasma thus transporting the lipids around our body. 30. Amphipathic molecules are key in transporting hydrophobic substances around the body(example: LDL or HDL are amphipathic molecules and they carry cholesterol and fat. HDL “the good cholesterol” because it carries to the liver to be destroyed, LDL “the bad cholesterol” takes the cholesterol and stores them to cells, LDL (low density lipoprotein) it is an amphipathic molecule and not considered a cholesterol, it contains cholesterol within them. HDL (high density lipoprotein) 31. Dehydration Synthesis a.Water is lost in the dehydration synthesis, also known as condensation reaction 32. Polysaccharidesa.Starch, Glucose, and cellulose b.Starchb.i.Two forms by amylose and amylopectin b.ii.20% is amylose 80% amylopectinc.We store glucose as glycogen and plants store glucose as starch d.Dietary fibers for us would be cellulose e.Fibers make poop more bulky making the large intestines contract more excluding more muscle strength thus making them work 33. Fatty Acids a.Do dehydration synthesis to make fatty acids b.Hydrolysis to break down the fatty acids 34. Phospholipids a.Micelle structurea.i.ex. phospholipid lipids are detergent, micelles form and trap the dirt, grease and grime
a.ii.Mix phospholipids with water to make micelles35. Cholesterol a.Cholesterol is a lipid b.Parent compound for steroid molecules c.Steroids are derivate of estrogen and testosterone d.Vitamin D is a steroid hormone produced from cholesterold.i.Expose skin to sunlight and there is an enzyme that activates and converts cholesterol to vitamin D e.Testosterone and estrogen are anabolic hormones36. Lipids a.Bile acids are steroids, made up of phospholipids and cholesterol, they are essential for properly digesting fat. b.Fat soluble vitamins b.i.A, D, E, and K (vitamins) b.ii.Plays a role in the absorption of fat c.Triglycerides, we store glucose as glycogen, we also store fat in fat cells, fat is caloric, why?, there are more carbon bonds so it is easier to break as opposed tocarbohydrates, breaking bonds using for energy.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 31 pages?