Rules online retailers until recently had advantage

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Rules: online retailers, until recently had advantage of not being obligated to charge sales taxI.E. Uber not defining themselves as taxi but as tech companyI.E. AirBnB
°°CA Master Plan for Education: Differentiating the functions of the 3 public education sectors°UCs heavy research, needed for law, medicine, dentistry, vets°CSU teachers, nurses°Community College remedial education°°Why are these roles the way they are?Do what’s at best interest for the organizations.Resources partitioning: way that organizations agreed to divvyup education. Specialize in order to not waste resources.oEfficiency arguments: inefficient if everyone did the same thing°Is this a matter of efficiency?History is somewhat different.Chaotic Pre-Master plan marketState legislators tried to found new state colleges in their jurisdictions, whether use of public $$$ made sense or notState colleges sought to expand their mission into graduate training and engineeringoStart competing for research grants, spike up the research capabilities copy the UCs to get more students, $$$, prestige, become successful. CSU mimic same root to success that UCs have. °°SummaryInstitutional fields define roles and rules of organization w/in field.Roles may institutionalized by custom/habit, codified by state.Field is shaped by emergence of worldviews that unite conflicting parties, not by execution of rational, overarching design. °°Neo-liberalism-normative statement: state should NOT be involved. °°Institutional perspective: not simply about organizations acting optimally or suboptimallly, social institutions enable it, states restrain activity but also create opportunities for activity. °°Organizations don’t work in what ways are most efficient instead it’s understood in social effect and it’s legitimate.
Much research illustrates gap between what organizations really do and what’s optimal.oSeen that organizational behavior is irrational or sub-optimal. °°°Lack of diversity in Silicon Valley---less females in the tech industry vs. males and ethnicity lack of diversity°Organized programs for addressing diversity issuesEqual opportunity advertisementDiversity training for managersGeneral diversity trainingDiversity taskforceMentoringAffinity networksWith all the programs, why is diversity still so difficult to achieve?Who adopts diversity programs and why?oRational adaptation: adoption of diversity explained by needThose who need diversity, will adopt policies. Those who already diverse, less likely to adopt.oPower/Internal advocacy: adoption explained by groups inside organization who advocate for itoCorporate culture: “organizational legacy”- what you didbefore, organization’s history oExternal pressure1.Peers in the same industry (mimetic isomorphism)2.Regulatory agencies/bodies (coercive isomorphism)Overall findings from the study:oPositive role:Program prevalence in industry has VERY significanteffect independent of other variables,

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