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Are we measuring just one underlying construct

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-Are we measuring just one underlying construct ?-Implications -Common factors create and maintain disorders -A relation between anxiety and depression -A cycle of the two symptoms leading to one another 4.2 Dan Harris’s Panic Attack -Symptoms:-Mouth drying up -Hands shaking/sweating -Heart racing -Lungs seized up/ unable to breathe -Cause ? Drugs and a desire to do well at his job -Drugs were self-medicated for his depression developed from being overseas -Talks some gibberish about religion and self-help books -The nagging voice in your head ?-Responsible for embarrassing things in your life ? -Meditation is a simple brain exercise that is beneficial to your health 4.3 GAD & Panic DisorderOverview and Defining Features -Excessive uncontrollable anxious apprehension and worry about multiple areas of life -Work, relationships, health-Persists for six months or more -One of the longer criteria for time in DSM-5-At least three symptoms present for more days than not over six months-Accompanied by associated symptoms -Muscle tension, restlessness, fatigue, irritability, concentration difficulties, sleep problems etc. -Can't be due to a substance -Its not better explained by another disorder Statistics
-Affects 3.1% of the general pop -- 5.7% lifetime prevalence-Females outnumber males approximately 2:1-Median age of onset is around 30-Past college years into early adulthood-Peaks in middle age and declines across later years -Tends to run in families Associated Features -“Autonomic restrictors” → less physiological response to stress then people with otheranxiety disorders -Avoid creating images of threat -Very sensitive to threat -Spend a lot of time and resource evaluating threats -Unconscious process always happening-Muscle tension → not a physical symptom we see in other disorders Treatments -Psychological interventions → cognitive-behavioral therapy -Evoke worry process and confront images and thoughts head-on-Become exposed to the thing you are worried about -Pharmacotherapy -Benzodiazepines → often prescribed (short term)-Negative side effects -Prone to dependency -Antidepressants (long term) -SSRIs have worked well -Meditation therapy -Accepting of anxiety → don’t give it so much weight -Combined treatments→ Acute vs. long-term outcomes -Psych treatments and drugs are equally effective short term but psych interventions are more effective long term Panic DisorderDefining Features -Experience of unexpected panic attacks (false alarms)-Develop anxiety, worry, or fear about another attack -Many develop agoraphobia -Criteria:-Recurrent unexpected panic attacks -A month or more of persistent worry about additional attacks -Significant maladaptive change in behavior related to the attacks Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
-Agoraphobia → fear of being in places in which it would be difficult to escape or get help in the event of unpleasant physical symptoms -Panic and agoraphobia often occur together-May occur independently -Pure panic → worried but not avoiding -Pure agoraphobia → symptoms not related to panic attacks -

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Term
Winter
Professor
Stepehn Schueller

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