ProQuestDocuments-2018-10-24 (2).pdf

Variables of importance included the resistance type

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variables of importance included the resistance type, or "suspect force", ranked from 0 (no additional resistance) to 15 (vehicle), and the complimentary variable "officer force" ranked from 0 (no force) to 14 (deadly force). During the collection of the data, it was determined that analogous reports existed as a result of the documentary procedures of the law enforcement agencies. The police agencies used for this study ensured that all officers present at an event documented the incident using a unique case number as a primary key. Subsequently when multiple officers were present during an event, there were several case numbers and several reports for the same incident. In order to resolve this, every case was sorted by date, month and year. They were then organized chronologically and duplicate reports were combined by hand selection into one event report. In single incidents that had multiple officers and multiple suspects, each of those were treated as separate events. In cases where there were multiple officers and a single suspect, the officer who responded at any particular time with the most force was interpreted to be the police response. Method The police use-of-force report and accompanying documents provide a large amount of data. Both OPD and OCSO agency policies and legal standards require that officers detail events when force is used. The use-of-force report is written specifically to explain the officer's force; they inherently include all the variables as observed and perceived by an officer in a temporal order. These forms identify the relationships between suspect actions and officer reactions. It is important to note that there is no universally accepted specific rank order of either police use of force or suspect resistance levels, or of actions within each level of resistance or reaction. To overcome this obstacle, the researchers of this current study held a focus group meeting of police trainers and administrators, developing a continuum structure that was consistent with both the OCSO and OPD policies (see Table I [Figure omitted. See Article Image.]). Using methodology similar to both [41] Terrill (2005) and [2] Alpert and Dunham (1999), the researchers measured and ranked police force in relation to suspect resistance. The researchers relied heavily on the work of [2] Alpert and Dunham (1999) by examining the sequential process (or iterations) of the encounters. A PDF GENERATED BY SEARCH.PROQUEST.COM Page 7 of 18
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single "iteration" was defined as any occurrence of suspect resistance coupled with police force. Again, similar to the methodology of [2] Alpert and Dunham (1999), each iteration paired suspect behavior with that of the police officer, resulting in a coded sequence or force factor. Table I [Figure omitted. See Article Image.] shows the force actions and continuum/matrix levels utilized to code variables in this study. Depicted on the left side of the table are subject resistance types and the corresponding matrix/continuum levels. To understand the effects of force and its relation to injuries to suspects and officers, the
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