o This would discourage investment and consequently inward foreign direct

O this would discourage investment and consequently

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o This would discourage investment, and, consequently, inward foreign direct investment is likely to fall, and capital outflows to increase. 16. Critically appraise the view that AIDS is a development issue (10) 2016-1 See 15.5 17. Analyse the delayed demographic transition in sub-Saharan Africa 17.1 Definition: Demographic Transitions Demographic transition from high fertility and high mortality to low fertility and low mortality 17.2 Delayed in SSA Demographic transitions slow in Africa mortality declined sharply in Africa with the introduction of modern public health practices and health technologies after World War 11 Yet in contrast to other developing regions, Africa has not experienced corresponding declines in fertility to any appreciable degree Falling death rates and stable birth rates has 2 consequences o rapid population growth o skewing of the age structure toward the young ages Africa's current population growth rate, which implies a doubling of the population in less than twenty-five years, is huge by historical and comparative standards and is certainly not sustainable over the long run.
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Page 22 of 39 The working-age population (between the ages of fifteen and sixty-four) is roughly half of the total population of Africa, and this share has actually fallen slightly since 1950. This contrasts with the higher (60 to 70 percent) and generally rising share found in other regions. In the rest of the world, by contrast, the working-age population grew, on average, 0.35 percent per year faster than the total population over the same period. This difference between African and world trends accounts for Africa's relatively high youth dependency ratio. Africa's youth dependency burden poses a significant impediment to the growth of income per capita, o labor force participation, productivity, and saving are low among the dependent population, o relative both to the working-age population and to their own consumption and investment requirements. Africa's demographic uniqueness, therefore, is not in the level of fertility but in the persistence of such a high level in the face of declining mortality rates. High fertility is the most salient feature of the continent's stalled demographic transition and the cause of its accelerating population growth and remarkably young age structure High fertility in Africa probably reflects a combination of low socioeconomic development (for example, in terms of education and gender inequality) and sociocultural practices that reinforce a preference for large families. o First, in rural areas of Africa market activity is limited and corresponding financial institutions are poorly, if at all, developed, so that the scope for saving for old age is limited. Therefore children continue to be viewed as the current generation's main source of old age insurance. Similarly, formal labor market activity is limited, which tends to reduce the perceived costs to fertility. Children are also an important source of labor in rural settings, assisting both in
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