� 2 j 1 2 i 1 2 O ij E ij 2 E ij 40 33333 2 7 2 16667 1960 1966667

# ? 2 j 1 2 i 1 2 o ij e ij 2 e ij 40 33333 2 7 2 16667

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Χ2=j=12i=12(OijEij)2Eij=(4033.333)233.333+(1016.667)216.667+(19601966.667)21966.667+(990983.333)2983.333=4.068On a Χ12distribution, p = 0.0437, therefore, we have sufficient data to reject the null hypothesis at the 0.05 level of significance and conclude that MI incidence is higher among smokers than among ex-smokers.10.74) ^p=1273+129311036+11035=0.11632 n1^p^q=(11036) (0.1163) (0.8837)>5and n1^p^q=(11035) (0.1163) (0.8837)>5, so use normal approximationfor test for two binomial proportions.10.75) H0: p1= p2HA: p1≠ p2^p1=127311036=0.1153^p2=129311035=0.1172z=^p1^p2^p^q(1n1+1n2)=0.11530.1172(0.1163) (0.8837)(111036+111035)=−0.440On a normal distribution, p = 0.66, therefore, we have insufficient data to reject the null hypothesis at the 0.05 level of significance and conclude that there is any difference in cancer incidence between beta-carotene and placebo groups.13.1) H0: p1= p2HA: p1≠ p2^p1=89283=0.3145^p2=6403833=0.1670^p=7294116=0.1771z=^p1^p2^p^q(1n1+1n2)=0.31450.1670(0.1771) (0.8229)(1283+13833)=6.272On a normal distribution, p < 0.05, therefore, we have sufficient data to reject the null hypothesis at the 0.05 level of significance and conclude that there is an effect of IUD use on fertility rate.13.2)ObservedInfertileFertileTotalIUD use89194283No IUD use64031933833Total72933874116ExpectedInfertileFertileTotalIUD use50.12232.88283No IUD use678.823154.183833Total72933874116i=12(OijEij)2Eij=¿(8950.12)250.12+(194232.88)2232.88+(640678.82  #### You've reached the end of your free preview.

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