supplier management, resource management, information management and process management ” . Leadership and management The success of TQM depends largely on managers ’ ability to create a vision, plan for and lead the organisational change required for TQM success. The literature both 545 Developing and validating a TQM model Downloaded by Universiti Putra Malaysia At 02:34 19 March 2017 (PT)
in general industry and healthcare, addressed and emphasised the importance of visionary leadership, including philosophy, style and behaviour in the implementation process of TQM initiatives (e.g. Kunst and Lemmink, 2000; Mosadeghrad, 2005). The leadership and management construct examines how senior managers as leaders are personally involved in developing and implementing a quality management system, inspire and drive the quality management change and support a culture of continuous improvement. Accordingly, I postulate: P1. Leadership and management are positively and significantly related to organisational performance. Strategic quality planning Quality improvement can only result from planned management action. The successful implementation of TQM requires careful strategic planning based on total quality. Including specific objectives for quality, as part of the strategic planning process, is associated with the degree of TQM success (Dayton, 2001; Francois et al. , 2003; Taylor and Wright, 2003). Healthcare managers should integrate quality as a strategic priority in their organisations ’ vision, policies and long-term strategies through a strategic quality planning process. The strategic quality planning construct examines how managers sets strategic directions, establishes a long-term vision, develops the values required for long-term success, sets strategic goals and objectives, incorporates quality in the strategic goals and objectives and implements these via appropriate strategies, policies and action plans. Thus, I propose: P2. Strategic quality planning is positively and significantly related to organisational performance. Quality culture TQM requires changes in managers ’ and employees ’ believes, attitudes and behaviours to focus on continuous improvement. Successful implementation of TQM requires a significant commitment to a culture emphasising trust, empowerment, entrepreneurship, teamwork, cooperation, risk taking and continuous improvement (Kaluarachchi, 2010; Mosadeghrad, 2006; Wardhani et al. , 2009). TQM programmes are more likely to succeed if the prevailing organisational culture is compatible with the values and basic Evaluation, improvement and organisational learning Strategic quality planning Education and training Quality culture Customer management Employee management Information management Supplier management Resource management Process management Customer results Leadership and management Results Enablers Employee results Supplier results Society results Organisation results Figure 1.