gene mutations (gene hits), normal aging of cells, heredity, environmental, viruses like HPV/HBV, and HCV which cause Hep B&C Poorly differentiated cells = bad, cancerous, anaplasia Tumor/neoplasm: abnormal mass Benign tumor: not cancerous Well differentiated, slower growth than malignant cells, well-encapsulated, non-metastasizing Ex: lipoma = non-cancerous fatty tumor Ends in -oma; ex: leiomyoma (smooth muscle tumor) Malignant tumor: cancer poorly differentiated, can metastasize leukemia root word and -oma; ex: -carcinoma (epithileal tissue), -sarcoma (connective tissue), -blastoma (underdeveloped baby cell) exceptions: Hodgkins Lymphoma – lymphatic cancer, skin cancer melanoma , hematologica tissue leukemia MOA: genetic “hits” oncogene (sets cancer into motion) clonal proliferation angiogenesis (tumor’s own blood supply, diverts nourishment) Dx: CAT scans, MRI, tumor markers, genetic markers
Chromic Myelocytic Luekemia (CML): translocation of pieces of chromo, squashed chromo = Philadelphia chromosome overproduction of leukocytes extreme leukocytosis leukemia Dx: bone marrow sample to see Philadelphia chromosome Staging (0 is benign) T= size of tumor 0-3 N= lymph node involvement 0-3 M= mestasis spread 0-3 S&S of cancer: inflammation & nerve irritation, fatigue due to angiogenesis, cachexia (wasting away: weight loss, anorexia, weakness), malnourished, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia Tx: radiation, surgery, vaccines against viruses (HPV), chemo Chemicals, cyanide, genetic, hypoxia, nutrition, infection, immune response Cellular Adaptation and Immobility Adaptation Atrophy = decrease in cell size due to disuse Hypertrophy = increase in size of cells due to heavy workload Hypertension Cardiac hypertrophy Hyperplasia = increase in # of cells from cell division Metaplasia = reversible replacement of one mature cell by another less differentiated cell from chronic injury Smoking, reverses and normalizes when you smoker quits Dysplasia = from persistent/severe irritation, abormal changes to size, shape, & organization of cells “pre-cancer”- less organized cells Ex: pap smears reveal dyplastic cells of cervix Immobility: alteration in mobility from acute or chronic illness Integumentary: pressure ulcers, skin breakdown Musculoskeletal: disuse atrophy from cell shrinkage Nursing Interventions: Frequent repositioning Early activity Skin checks for breakdown Protective devices Nutrition and hydration Educate pt and family members on risks of immobility
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- Fall '14