Being altered significantly and the changes in

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being altered significantly, and the changes in cultural norms and attitudes toward drugs are resulting in drug use. Specifically, drawing on our migration perspective, we are proposing a social ecological framework to guide binational substance research. The proposed model is comprised of the following factors: migration status, community factors in the United States and Mexico, and individual factors. The migration status of transnational workers refers to their status as authorized or unauthorized temporary foreign laborers in the United States and their migration practices. “Migrant status,” we argue, places them at high risk for substance abuse. Unlike their US domestic counterparts, who are away from their communities for months or migrate with their families, transnational migrants are away from their homes for years because of the costs and, in the case of unauthorized or undocumented workers, the risks associated with crossing the United States-Mexico border without proper inspection. Additionally, these workers are not permitted to enter the country with their spouses or children, unless their family members are permanent residents, or green (now pink in color) cardholders (Note 3). Entering the country without proper border inspection and authorization is not an option for their family members, given the high smuggler costs and the perils in crossing the border clandestinely. Consequently, the workers live with other solo men like themselves, away from family- and community-based deterrents to heavy drinking and drug use, described elsewhere 16 as community norms against alcohol abuse, the presence of kin-based authority figures, and a familial support base. Migration practice refers to the number of border crossings, duration away from their home communities, and their destinations in the United States. It also includes migration history: that is, the age when the worker began to migrate, destinations in the United States, and the employment undertaken. Community factors in the United States are living arrangements, peer pressure, social isolation, drug availability, proximity to bars and other drug using sites, and the presence of a drug subculture in surrounding communities. Living arrangements refer to farmworker housing (eg, barracks or dormitory, freestanding cottages or house trailers, or apartment units) and the number of occupants and their relationship to one another. Peer pressure refers to encouragement from housing mates, co-workers, and friends to use drugs, often by making them available. It includes belittling (eg, calling a person names, making jokes about a person, questioning a person’s manhood) or not acknowledging or talking to the nonuser (eg, walking away from him and not letting a person join in social activities). Social isolation is little contact with local kin, if any in the area, or close friends from their home 3 Permanent resident is a judicial immigrant status that grants a foreigner permission to immigrate to the United States. Until recently,
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  • Fall '19
  • Human migration, Migrant worker

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