Adequately discussed in traditional realist and

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adequately discussed in traditional realist and liberal approaches to political science Post-Structuralism is an offshoot to the tradition structuralism, which tries to explain social relation in relation to structures Makes the claim that in order to understand the social world, you must study relationships o When someone makes a claim, they are exercising a source of power If you believe that person is true, you are recognizing their power Looks to unpack and understand social world through knowledge and source of power Post-Modernism: What is Modernity? o Control over progress in the social and material world throughout knowledge o Marked by assumption of rationality and objectivity o Idea that we can control/domination as humans, learn to control material world (I.e. progress) What is Post-Modernism? o New times? Or New Methods? o Conflation between postmodernity as an epoch and post-structuralism Four Debates: 1. Description versus Explanation a. Description: What do I see (I.e. Journalists describe) b. Explanation: Explanation/interpretation of those observations (I.e. Political scientists) i. Ways of observation: 1. “Covering Law” Based on the observations, we can predict what the next phenomenon is a. Most-expansive 2. “Erotetic” Aimed at solving a puzzle 3. “Causal-informative” Also observations (most narrow) 2. Holism versus Individualism a. What has the most explanatory power? i. Ontological: Social phenomena are certain things and not others ii. Methodological: What should be the research focus? Society or people? b. Wendt: Differentiates between causes and constitute X causes Y. He insisted that it is not that x causes Y but that X being caused by Y makes sense. i. I.e. There is a master slave relationship: this structure causes slaves to revel when the master becomes too abusive 3. Agency versus Structure
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a. Structure: Constraining feature on individual behavior i. Structural analysis of cold war focuses on high technology weapons system that the USSR couldn’t match b. Agency: Focused on individual action (I.e. Reagan) c. You get a better explanation if you use both explanations and consider both 4. Behaviorism versus Culturalism a. Post-modernism would fit on the constructivist side based on how we understand positivism b. Cultural: Very much about structure; this is to say that cultural norms values, and attides that are reproduced over generation are what explains human behavior c. Behavioral is very low level, and all about individuals T UTORIAL : W EEK T HREE P OSITIVISM R EALISM Four Tenants o Naturalism (Everything can be measured) o Only that which is observable has meaning o Sciences should seek out laws o Facts are different than values Very scientific approach Observation – Hypothesis – Theory Critique: Hard to measure importance You can observe and not observe certain things (i.e. capitalism) Structural and institutional mechanisms Critique: Hard to measure explanations I NTERPRETIVISM P OST -M ODERNISM Critiques positivism
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