What we just viewed was a cell dealing with incoming materials phagocytosis

What we just viewed was a cell dealing with incoming

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What we just viewed was a cell dealing with “incoming” materials: phagocytosis. Endomembrane System at Work What about materials that are produced in the cells that either stick around or are “outgoing”?
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Endomembrane System at Work mRNA in cytoplasm ER Signal sequence? Ribosome remains free in cytoplasm Trans-membrane? Goes back ER Lysosome“zip code” signal sequence? mRNA Binds Ribosomes Translation starts
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Endomembrane Pathway
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Peroxisomes Oxidizing enzymes Detoxification Byproducts H2O2 Hazardous to cell H20 + H2 Large protein crystal
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Mitochondria Produces ATP Double membrane Contains a separate, circular chromosome and its own ribosomes. Reproduce separately from cell division. ATP
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Chloroplasts Photosynthesis Double membrane Membranous sacks called thylakoids Separate circular chromosome
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Mitochondria & Chloroplasts: Organelles or Something Else? 2 membranes Possess their own DNA Respiration and photosynthesis Undergo binary fission to “reproduce” What type of organism does this sound like? Endosymbiotic Theory of Cell Evolution
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Endosymbiotic Theory
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Cell Wall Plants and Fungi Added structure Prevents dehydration
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Plant Vacuoles Plants lack lysosomes. Can take up 80% of the cell’s volume. Water storage Enzymes as well.
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Cytoskeleton
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Cytoskeleton Fibers: 3 Main Types Microfilaments Intermediate Filaments Microtubules
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Cytoskeleton Fibers Microfilaments Actin subunits (protein) Cell division Cleavage furrow formation Involved in muscle contraction Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells.
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Cytoskeleton Fibers Intermediate Filaments Supercoiled keratin proteins Anchors nucleus in the cell
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