Genetics and the varied expression of genes also have

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Genetics and the varied expression of genes also have a potentially misleading effect on the correlation of interest. Certain loci and their products show a correlation with bladder cancer risk. The presence of Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-a, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-G, all increased bladder cancer risk (Leibovichi, 2005). Another study found further links, this time between 44 genetic polymorphisms encoding DNA repair and cell-cycle control elements, and an increased risk of bladder cancer (Wu et al, 2006). Regions 8q24, PSCA, and TP63 of the chromosome, were identified by whole genome sequencing and association, as valid indicators of the risk for various cancers (Wu et al, 2009). The recurring presence of cancer-fighting elements programmed into our DNA implies that inflammation and allergies are intentional adaptations that are evolutionarily maintained by their offsetting role in cancer prevention. It also further complicates the relationship between allergies and cancer. The aforementioned genetic composition and expression variations, together with their purposes, ranging from inflammation inhibition/stimulation to oncogene activation, hint towards a greater picture of cancer, allergies, inflammation, and their coordination through genetic as well as environmental influence. The reason for statistical relatedness is proposed by this paper to be the strong connection to the immune system and varying inflammation that 4
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both allergies and cancer are revealed to share. An alternative hypothesis that was then possible to suggest, a new “Inflammation Hypothesis,” reasoned that the similar genes involved in allergies and bladder cancer are due to the varying responses of the immune system to known carcinogenic substances. Under this hypothesis allergies are indeed a way to fight off anything recognized as foreign by the immune system. However, severe or multiple allergies lead to repeating instances of inflammation, which can lead to a pro-cancerous environment inside the body. In effect, the previously mentioned hypotheses of Prophylaxis, Immunosurveilance, and Antigenic Stimulation, were all combined to synthesize a deeper explanation of the relationship between allergies and bladder cancer. This new Inflammation hypothesis could also make several predictions that differ from the predictions made by any of the previous hypotheses. The Inflammation hypothesis forecasts the presence of both positive and inverse correlations, depending on the causing factors that lead to the particular cancer. Dunn (Dunn, 2004) was one of the first to posit an intimate relationship between cancer and immune system-based defenses, one far beyond a simple positive/negative correlation. Crespi and Summers (Crespi and Summers, 2005) expanded upon this cancer immunosurveilance, and finally proposed an ongoing evolutionary battle between cancerous cells and various parts of the human immune system arsenal (including inflammation, cytokines, and growth factors). The vague correlations between bladder cancer and allergy
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  • Fall '10
  • PAULW.SHERMAN
  • bladder cancer

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