prevalence because the data includes old and new cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea within an entire population.
FREQUENCY MEASURES USED IN RESEARCH 5Maternal Mortality RateMaternal mortality rate, a sub-measure of mortality, uses a ratio of how many maternal deaths compared live births within a period of time. For example, if in 2008 there were 10 maternal deaths and there were 100,000 live births then the maternal mortality rate would be 10 per 100,000 live births(CDC, 2006). This frequency measure can be very useful when trying to gauge the risk of pregnancy for many different sub-factors or just to see the overall health of pregnant women throughout communities.A study on Angolan maternal mortality, published in the Journal of Medical Systems, displays their data by using maternal mortality rate. The study uses data collected between 1994-1998. Complete data was available for 19,666 deliveries (83% of total). 55 maternal deaths were recorded, which makes the maternal mortality rate 293 per 100,000 live births (Schaider, J. et al.,1999). This study is a great example of maternal mortality rate as it displays the number of maternal deaths per live births.Death-to-Case RatioAnother sub-measure of mortality, the death-to-case ratio, shows the number of deaths as a result of a certain disease throughout a certain time period. It is calculated by taking the number of deaths from a disease divided by the number of people who had that particular diseaseduring a specified time period. This ratio shows how dangerous a disease could be to the persons infected. A study on the risk of death after a myocardial infarction in diabetic and non-diabetic people, published in Diabetes Care, shows the use of death-to-case ratio to display their findings.
FREQUENCY MEASURES USED IN RESEARCH 6The data for this study was obtained from 1988-1992 and the survival statuses were obtained for 1993. The final study comprised a total of 4,065 patients, 3,445 non-diabetic and 620 diabetic, with their first myocardial infarction. During the 1-year follow-up from the event, 1042 of the non-diabetic persons and 268 of the diabetic persons died (Miettinen, H. et al.,1998) The total amount of deaths was 1310 out of 4,065 events or in other words the ratio of deaths within one year of a myocardial infarction is 32.2 per 100. This study shows a perfect example of death-to-
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