Can be big the giant kelp macrocystis grows to 60 m

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Can be big! The giant kelp Macrocystis grows to ~60 m long Most brown algae attach to rocks using a structure called a “holdfast” 114 Eukarya Need to know Formerly protists 115
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Land plant phylogeny Plantae Need to know Paraphyletic “Green Algae” 116 Plantae Includes Red algae, many aquatic groups that are collectively known at “green algae” (a paraphyletic group), and Land Plants. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Plantae had an endosymbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium, which evolved into a chloroplast. The molecular details of this chloroplast are diagnostic. 117 Red Algae Color obtained from pigment in chloroplasts (phycoerythrin) Mostly marine, but a few freshwater species Nori, which is used in sushi, is a red algae Phycology is the scientific study of algae, which traditionally includes red algae, green algae, and brown algae. Phycology is polyphyletic ! 118
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Green plants A clade that includes the land plants, but also several lineages of “green algae” The MRCA included b in its chloroplast, which is why green plants are green 119 “Green algae” - Paraphyletic - Very diverse - Marine and freshwater - Some fungi form symbiotic associations with green algae (or cyanobacteria) to form lichens. Lichens have evolved repeatedly. Lichen 120 Land plant phylogeny Plantae Need to know Paraphyletic “Green Algae” 121
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Need to know 122 Land Plants Formally, land plants are “embryophytes,” which refers to a synapomorphy: development from an embryo that is protected in the tissues of the parent plant . Another synapomorphy: cuticle (an extracellular hydrophobic layer that covers the aerial epidermis). Land plants is composed of many groups, including ferns, mosses, gymnosperms, and angiosperms Land plants first appeared in the terrestrial environment 450-500 million years ago Living on land instead of water required many adaptations. Risks on land include desiccation and an increased influence of gravity 123 Mosses A group of “non-vascular plants” (a paraphyletic group that also includes mosses, liverworts and hornworts) Roots and leaves not homologous with land plants, though mosses have analogous structures (called rhizoids & leaves, respectively) Alternation of generations: diploid and haploid stages. The gametophyte
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  • Spring '18
  • MORRIS

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