Poverty ravaged scotland in the 1600s as it was not a

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Poverty ravaged Scotland in the 1600s, as it was not a fruitful land. They faced being forced off the land, having their rent increased and being persecuted by the English to support the hated church. A great migration to Ireland in the 1600s occurred, but it only offered temporary relief, as making a living was still hard. They finally moved to America in the 1700s. They originally settled in Pennsylvania because of Penn’s religious tolerance, but later fanned out down the border of the Appalachians. The Scots-Irish set up very crude settlements. They exhausted the land and then moved on. Almost all Scots-Irish maintained a Presbyterian Church. It was the only thing that connected the independent people. The church played a huge role in government, and was often established before courts. However, they did not advocate a theocracy, as they resented the Anglican Church and the king of England. The Scots-Irish played a large role in the American Revolution as patriots. The Structure of Colonial Society Unlike Europe, America in the 1700s was not dominated by a ruling class or threatened by impoverished people. Most whites were small farmers, and in the cities there were skilled artisans. Also, the social ladder was extremely flexible, people could rise to higher classes. However, signs of immobility started to arise, rising the worry if “Europeanizing America.” Because of conflicts in the 1690s and 1700, the rich started to live more luxuriously, and by 1750, the top ten percent of people in cities like Boston and Philadelphia owned 2/3 of the city’s wealth. War also created a large number of orphans that needed charity, still, the poverty rate in America was still better than in England. In New England, unclaimed land became scarce, and they found themselves dividing the land into much smaller fractions. Younger sons and daughters were forced to seek wage labor jobs, and many homeless people crowded cities. They lived on public charity and were forced to wear a red “P” on their clothing. In the south, great planters bolstered their slave ownerships, resulting in a wider gap between the gentry and the poor whites. The lower class also saw an influx of indentured servants, most of which actually achieved prosperity. A less fortunate group of migrants were criminals forced to America by London authorities, but many were victim to an unfair English penal code. Some actually became respected citizens. The least fortunate of all were the black slaves. They had no chance of moving up higher in society and were feared because of the threat of a rebellion. Some southern colonies tried to stop the importation of slaves, but the English government wanted to keep the cheap labor. Many northerners condemned slavery and did not allow it on moral grounds. Thomas Jefferson wrote about how the English veto was not acceptable in the Declaration of independence, but was forced to withdraw it because of angry southern slave owners.

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