Impacts expectations for the joint sharing of informal control support and

Impacts expectations for the joint sharing of

This preview shows page 9 - 12 out of 16 pages.

Impacts expectations for the joint sharing of informal control, support and supervision of children and young people within neighbourhoods SD theory combined 2 traditions of research within the social sciences o Geo-spatial statistical methodology o Qualitative and interpretive methodologies Divide still strong today – most researchers take sides between external-objective position (largely quantitative) & internal-subjective position (largely qualitative)
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Strengths o Moves beyond the individualist and/or medical explanations of crime that were common in 18 th & 19 TH centuries o Exemplifies the first serious social analysis of deviance and crime o Suggests that deviants are not so different from other individuals, but rather live in different environments Weaknesses o Problems in earlier research with the conceptualization of “disorganization” (i.e. working women) and choice of indicators o Measurement of disorganization sometimes involved use of statistics on deviance aas an indicator of disorganization o Tautological problem (i.e. delinquency indicates SD and SD leads to delinquency) o Neglect of other types of deviance (white collar crime, corporate crime) o Over-reliance on official crime data Week 7 – Social Structural theories of crime 1 . Understand and be able to define the concepts of social structures, strain, anomie (as used by Merton), status frustration, and differential opportunity 2. Be able to explain the basic assumptions of sociological functionalism 3. Be able to explain Durkheim's notion of the social functions of crime and deviance (4 functions) 4. Be able to explain Agnew's use of the concept of general strain theory 5. Be able to articulate the main criticisms of social structural and strain theories Emile Durkheim – founder of functionalist paradigm Social Cohesion o Mechanical Solidarity – types of interactions between individuals – rigidly conforming to tightly held beliefs and rituals o Organic Solidarity – as societies become more complex, the roles of people in society change (increased division of labour, individualism, personal anonymity , declining, importance of the collective consciousness , less by retributive law than by reparative law or restitution o Interested in the “glue” that holds society together (moral order & collective consciousness) o Rituals are both a means of social cohesion, as well as a way to analyze and judge the level of social cohesion o All societies have observable phenomenon that function to integrate members, maintain social cohesion & meet peoples needs and wants (family, politics, education, religion &
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economy) – all societies have these social structures and all depend on their functions for maintenance & survival o Crime is one of these social facts o Crime & deviance help to define moral boundaries o Anomie – result of significant up heals in society (i.e. financial crises, rapid economic changes) – refers to a state of breakdown in shared moral standards and normative assumptions of social behaviours o
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