Usually the author does not live through these

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experiences. Usually, the author does not live through these experiences solely to make them part of a published document; rather, these experiences are assembled using hindsight (Bruner, 1993; Denzin, 1989, Freeman, 2004). In writing, the author also may interview others as well as consult with texts like photographs, journals, and recordings to help with recall (Delany, 2004; Didion, 2005; Goodall, 2006; Herrmann, 2005). Most often, autobiographers write about "epiphanies" - remembered mo ments perceived to have significantly impacted the trajectory of a person's life (Bochner & Ellis, 1992; Couser, 1997; Denzin, 1989), times of existential crises that forced a person to attend to and analyze lived experience (Zaner, 2004), and events after which life does not seem quite the same. While epipha nies are self-claimed phenomena in which one person may consider an experi ence transformative while another may not, these epiphanies reveal ways a person could negotiate "intense situations" and "effects that linger - recollec tions, memories, images, feelings - long after a crucial incident is supposedly finished" (Bochner, 1984, p. 595). When researchers do ethnography, they study a culture's relational prac tices, common values and beliefs, and shared experiences for the purpose of helping insiders (cultural members) and outsiders (cultural strangers) better 275 This content downloaded from 160.36.239.64 on Thu, 18 Jan 2018 23:51:32 UTC All use subject to understand the culture (Maso, 2001). Ethnographers do this by becoming par ticipant observers in the culture - that is, by taking field
notes of cultural hap penings as well as their part in and others' engagement with these happenings (Geertz, 1973; Goodall, 2001). An ethnographer also may interview cultural members (Berry, 2005; Nicholas, 2004), examine members' ways of speaking and relating (Ellis, 1986; Lindquist, 2002), investigate uses of space and place (Corey, 1996; Makagon, 2004; Philipsen, 1976), and/or analyze artifacts such as clothing and architecture (Borchard, 1998), and texts such as books, movies, and photographs (Goodall, 2006; Neumann, 1999; Thomas, 2010). When researchers do autoethnography, they retrospectively and selectively write about epiphanies that stem from, or are made possible by, being part of a culture and/or by possessing a particular cultural identity. However, in addition to telling about experiences, autoethnographers often are required by social science publishing conventions to analyze these experiences. As Mitch Allen says, an autoethnographer must look at experience analytically. Otherwise [you're] telling [your] story - and that's nice - but people do that on Oprah [a U.S.-based television program] every day. Why is your story more valid than anyone else's? What makes your story more valid is that you are a researcher. You have a set of theoretical and methodological tools and a research literature to use. That's your advantage. If you can't frame it around these tools and literature and just frame it as 'my story,' then why or how should 1 privilege your story over anyone else's I see 25 times a day on TV? (personal interview, May 4, 2006) Autoethnographers must not only use their methodological tools and research literature to analyze

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