3 eventually princes of moscow who served the khan

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3.Eventually, princes of Moscow, who served the khan, began to consolidate their own rule and replaced Mongol power. (Ivan I and Ivan III were the most important) 4.Muscovybegan to emerge as the most significant principality that formed the nucleus of what later became Russia. However, the Russian nobles (boyars) and the free peasantry made it difficult for Muscovite rulers to strengthen the state B.Ivan III (“Ivan the Great”) (1442-1505) 1.1480, ended Mongol domination of Muscovy 2.Established himself as the hereditary ruler of Muscovy a.This was in response to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and his desire to make Moscow the new center of the Orthodox Church: the “Third RomeThe tsar became the head of the church The “2ndRome” had been Constantinople before it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 Many Greek scholars, craftsmen, architects and artists were brought into Muscovy b.Tsar claimed his absolute power was derived from divine right as ruler c.Ivan struggled with the Russian boyars for power. Eventually, the boyars’ political influence decreased but they began exerting more control of their peasants.
HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Page 9 Unit 3.3: Absolutism in Eastern Europe © 2012 HistorySage.com All Rights Reserved C.Ivan IV (“Ivan the Terrible”) (1533-1584) 1.Background a.Grandson of Ivan III b.First to take the title of “tsar” (Caesar)c.Married a Romanov 2.Territorial expansion a.Controlled the Black Sea region b.Gained huge territories in the Far East c.Gained territories in the Baltic region 3.Began westernizing Muscovy Encouraged trade with England and the Netherlands 4.For 25 years, he fought unsuccessful wars against Poland-Lithuania a.Military obligations deeply affected both nobles and peasants b.These wars left much of central Europe depopulated c.Cossacks: Many peasants fled the west to the newly-conquered Muscovite territories in the east and formed free groups and outlaw armies. Gov’t responded by increasing serfdom5.Reduced the power of the boyars a.All nobles had to serve the tsar in order to keep their lands b.Serfdom increased substantially to keep peasants tied to noble lands c.Many nobles were executed Ivan blamed the boyars for his wife’s death and thus became increasingly cruel and demented 6.Merchants and artisans were also bound to their towns so that the tsar could more efficiently tax them This contrasts the emergence of capitalism in western Europe where merchants gained influence and more security over private property. 7.“Time of Troubles”followed Ivan IV’s death in 1584 a.Period of famine, power struggles and war b.Cossack bands traveled north massacring nobles and officials c.Sweden and Poland conquered Moscow d.In response, nobles elected Ivan’s grand-nephew as new hereditary tsar and rallied around him to drive out the invaders
HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Page 10 Unit 3.3: Absolutism in Eastern Europe © 2012 HistorySage.com All Rights Reserved D.Romanov dynasty1.Lasted from the ascent of Michael Romanov in 1613

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