Bandura, Ross and Ross, 1963 – not all children imitated to acquire the behaviour. They were able to learn by observing and could repeat or produce the behaviour if asked to. Imitation can depend on whether person is popular, smart, talented, or whether behaviours are rewarded or punished. Imitation also depends on self-efficacy If child believes in his/her abilities then imitation is more likely for the associated behaviour The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective o Piaget o Focuses on how children think and their thinking changes over time o Children naturally try to make sense of their physical and social worlds, weaving their knowledge into a complete theory Theories are tested and strengthened by daily experiences o Stages in life are seen as radical revisions of theories o Sensorimotor – birth to age 2 Knowledge is based on senses and skills, then mental representations o Preoperational – age 2 to 6 Learning of symbols like words and numbers for representation. Can only see from his/her perspective o Concrete operational – age 7 to 11 Understanding and applying logical operations to experiences o Formal operational – adolescence to adulthood Abstract and hypothetical speculations. Deductive reasoning on what may be possible The Contextual Perspective o Looks at the bigger picture – Cultural influence Way of life of a group of people at a particular time o Vygotsky o Fundamental aim of society is for children to acquire essential cultural values & skills Development revolves around this Like a generational apprenticeship Bronfrenbrenner’s Theory o The developing child is embedded in a series of complex and interactive o Microsystem- immediate environment including objects and people o Mesosystem- what happens in the microsystem and how it affects others around you o Exosystem-Social settings that a person may not experience first-hand but still influence their development (mom had a bad day at work) o Macrosystem- the subcultures and cultures in which the other environments exist o Chronosystem- the fact that these systems are constantly interchangeable HOW DO WE CHANGE (OR NOT) OVER TIME? From conception to death o Therefore, child development – birth to 10-15 years Age is a primary influence
Also analyse before and after age-related events WHAT TYPES OF THINGS ARE STUDIED? Physical, social, mental, cognitive (EVERYTHING) o Getting a picture of how we become adults GOALS Describe phenomena – WHAT? Explain phenomena – WHY? WHY STUDY CHILDREN? Rapid development – can be very exciting Long term influences of early experiences o Prenatal and postnatal environments Real world applications o E.g. Lead paint in 60s and 70s – children from poor neighbourhoods seemed to have poor cognition Lead paint peeled of walls and kids ended up eating it Policy makers listened and made it illegal for lead paint to be used
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- Fall '13
- Developmental Psychology