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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

A groups performance is not merely the summation of

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individual members. A group’s performance is not merely the summation of its individual members’ abilities. However, these abilities set parameters for what members can do and how effectively they will perform in a group. Evidence indicates that individuals who hold crucial abilities for attaining the group’s task tend to be more involved in group activity, generally contribute more, are more likely to emerge as the group leaders, and are more satisfied if their talents are effectively utilized by the group. A great deal of research has explored the relationship between personality traits and group attitudes and behavior. The general conclusion is that attributes tending to have a positive connotation in our culture tend to be positively related to group productivity, morale, and cohesiveness. These include traits such as sociability, self-reliance, and independence. In contrast, negatively evaluated characteristics such as authoritarianism, dominance, and unconventionality tend to be negatively related to the dependent variables. These personality traits affect group performance by strongly influencing how the individual will interact with other group members.
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A role is the term given to mean a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. The understanding of role behavior would be dramatically simplified if each person chose one role and played it out regularly and consistently. Unfortunately, most people are required to play a number of diverse roles, both on and off their jobs. Because of the number of roles people are expected to play, behavior will vary. In addition, different groups impose different role requirements on individuals. Certain attitudes and actual behaviors consistent with a role create the role identity . People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize the situation and its demands clearly require major changes. For instance, when union stewards of one company were promoted to supervisory positions, it was found their attitudes changed from pro-union to pro-management within a few months of their promotion. When these promotions had to be rescinded later because of economic difficulties in the firm, it was found that the demoted supervisors had once again adopted their pro-union attitudes. One’s view of how one is supposed to act in a given situation is a role perception . Based on an interpretation of how we believe we are supposed to behave, we engage in certain types of behavior. People get these perceptions from stimuli such as friends, books, movies, and television. Many current law enforcement officers learned their roles by reading books or by watching television shows like NYPD Blue. In addition, the primary reason that apprenticeship programs exist in many trades and professions is to allow beginners to watch an expert, so they can learn to act as they are supposed to Role expectations are defined as how others believe a person should act in a given situation. How a person behaves is determined to a large extent by the role defined in the context in which they are acting. For example, the role of a U.S.
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