affairs to a leader able to keep them from being molested and to adjudge between them in case of mutual quarrels and squabbles.The salient features of the institutions of Imamate:1.The institute of Imamate is necessary as a requirement of the Shariah and not asa requirement of reason. The appointment of an Imam by the consensus of the Muslim community is obligatory.2.The Imamate is instituted by means of election. The electoral college shall consist of persons with the special qualifications:a.Justice with all the conditions pertaining to itb.Knowledge of religion and of the interests and policy of the nationc.WisdomThe candidates of Imamate should also fulfill certain conditions:1.Justice2.Learning3.Integrity of physical senses4.Integrity of physical organs5.Wisdom6.Bravery7.Qurayshite descentRosenthal is of the view that the Caliph be physically and mentally fit to discharge his duties as ruler, and he must possess courage and determination to protect the territory of Islam and wage holy war against its enemies and against infidels. He must also be a descendant of the Quraish.3.The election principle of the Imamate quoted above is obviously against the Shi’ite claim of bequeathal or divine nomination. Al-Mawardi omits the case when a
debauch and licentious person is elected as Imam.4.The right of franchise is not enjoyed only by the people in the capital. The Caliph,however, traditionally elected in the capital because the death of the previous Caliph is first known there, and political considerations require the immediate appointment of a new Caliph, and because most of the people possessing the necessary qualifications for the Imamate generally reside there. This principle was enthusiastically contented by Khawarij who believed in complete democracy and universal franchise.5.The Qurayshite descent of the candidate of Imamate is very important. Al-Mawardi lays great stress on it and says that if any one raises any objection on the ground that it excludes non-Qurayshites from the Caliphate such an objection wouldnot be considered because it was this Qurayshite descent that was presented by Abu Bakr as an argument for preference in the election of Saqifat Bani Saidah. This flimsy emphasis on the Qurayshite descent is a formidable hit on the claims of Fatimids.6.The Imam is appointed in one of the two ways:i.He may be elected by the electoral collegeii.He may be nominated by the ruling ImamIn the first case some scholars hold that Imam must be elected by all the members of the Electoral College in all the cities; others oppose this view and say that Caliph Abu Bakr was elected by the citizens of Medina. Still others assert that only five persons are sufficient to elect the Imam. But Al-Mawardi says that one person is enough to elect the Caliph. He sites the tradition of Abbas in evidence.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 15 pages?
- Fall '09
- Islam, Caliph, Qur'an, Imam, Abu Bakr