100%(7)7 out of 7 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 3 - 5 out of 8 pages.
Macrolides and KetolidesThis group of medications is absorbed through the GI tract with good tissue penetration and minimal protein binding (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Metabolized through the liver and excreted through the urine, requiring dosing consideration for renal patients. Half-lives vary depending on the medication and range from hours to days. As broad-spectrum antibiotics they cover infections from STDs to respiratory, skin and tissue, and legionnaires.AminoglycosidesAs this group can cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, renal dosing will be required for renal failure patients. These are poorly absorbed from the GI tract making parenteral administration necessary. They are weakly bound to serum proteins, but distribute freely into the extracellular fluid (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Half-life is approximately 1-3 hours and is used primarily to treat gram-negative infections (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017).TetracyclineThe protein binding and absorption rates in the GI tract vary with this group of medications while being eliminated through the renal system (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Long-acting agents have the highest absorption and protein binding with a half-life of 16-18 3
Antimicrobial Medicationshours, while the short-acting agents have a half-life of approximately eight hours (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Used for its broad-spectrum qualities in infections such as STDs, Lyme disease, respiratory tract, gram-negative, and MRSA when Beta-Lactams are not an option (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017).GlycylcyclineThis medication is only available through parenteral administration with a half-life of 27-42 hours and moderate protein binding (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). It is not extensively metabolized in the liver, but those with an underlying liver disease will need to have their dosages adjusted (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Used to treat conditions such as skin infections pneumonia, and gram-negative infections that are resistant to alternative medications (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017).SulfonomideIf taken orally, it is easily absorbed through the GI tract and distributed through all tissuesand enter the CSF, pleural, and synovial fluids (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). They are eliminated through the renal and hepatic systems with half-lives that vary from hours to days (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Used to treat infections like ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, UTI, resistant gram-negative infections and burns (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017).GlycopeptidesVancomycin is poorly absorbed in the GI tract and provides concentrations in stool sufficient to treat Clostridium difficile colitis while Telavancin has the highest binding to proteins while both drugs have relatively good penetration into most body fluids and tissues, with unpredictable levels attained in the CSF and bone (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Eliminated through the renal system, monitoring renal function is vital. Half-life ranges for both between 5-11 hours (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Used to treat serious gram-positive infectionswhen unable to tolerate beta-lactams, along with neutropenic fever, endocarditis, and meningitis with Vancomycin being the drug of choice for MRSA (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017).