Practical: the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful; “street smarts” Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory Crystallized Intelligence o Represents acquired knowledge and skills Fluid Intelligence o Problem solving and adaptability in unfamiliar situations Other abilities include visual and auditory processing, memory, speed of processing, reaction time, quantitative skills and reading- writing skills Suggested that CHC theory is most researched, empirically supported, and comprehensive Neuroscience Theories Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory o Frontal and Parietal brain areas play the most important roles with regard to brain area and function Researchers suggest other areas such as the posterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, and specific subcortical areas also play critical roles o Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Originally, a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one’s mental age by one’s chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100 Most tests now use age group comparison norms Allows testers to compare intelligence levels of people from different age groups
Wechsler Intelligence Test Stanford Binet o Emotional Intelligence Awareness of and ability to manage one’s own emotions, as well as the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled Viewed as a powerful influence on success in life Levels of Language Analysis o Language: a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others Grammar The system of rules governing the structure and use of a language Phonemes The basic units of sound in a language Not letters Morphemes The smallest units of meaning within a language Syntax The system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences Semantics Rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics Aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social niceties of language The Relationship Between Language and Thought o Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language o Cognitive Universalism: theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language o Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis/Sapir-Worf Hypothesis: the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language Chapter 8: Development Research Designs o Longitudinal One participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time Cohort Effect Impact on development when a group of people share common time period or life experience o Cross-sectional Several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time
o Cross-sequential Research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years Infant Reflexes and Milestones in Physical Development o Infants are born with reflexes that help them survive Grasping Moro (startle) Rooting Stepping Sucking o Motor Development
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- Classical Conditioning, linguistic relativity hypothesis