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Vascular occlusions and infarctions lungs and blood

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Vascular occlusions and infarctions Lungs, and blood vessels are smaller smaller blood vessels of the hands or feet cause hand-foot syndrome Delay of growth and development Congestive heart failure Diagnostic Tests: Carriers of the defective gene can be detected by a simple blood test (hemoglobin electrophoresis), prenatal DNA analysis can also be used Treatment: Hydroxyurea has reduced frequency of crisis, dietary supplements with folic acid, bone marrow transplant, and immunization in children (against pneumonia, influenza, or meningitis) Polycythemia Vera : Primary Polycythemia is a condition in which there is an increased production of erythrocytes and other cells in the bone marrow. Considered a neoplastic disorder. Serum erythropoietin levels are low Secondary Polycythemia also called erythrocytosis is an increase in RBCs that occurs in response to prolonged hypoxia and increased erythropoietin secretions. We used compensation mechanisms to provide increased oxygen transport Signs and symptoms: Distended blood vessels, sluggish blood flow Increased BP, heptomegaly, Splenomegaly Dyspnea, headaches, and visual disturbances
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Diagnostic Tests: Increased cell counts, hemoglobin, and Hematocrit levels Hypercellular bone marrow, and hyperuricemia Treatment: Identify cause, phlebotomy, drugs or radiation, to suppress bone marrow activity Signs of Blood-Clotting Disorders Persistent bleeding from gums or epistaxis (nosebleeds) Petechiae- small flat red spots on skin/mucous Frequent purpura (purple spots or patches on the skin) and ecchymosis (large purple spot on skin commonly called a bruise) More than normal bleed in trauma or bleeding in joints Hemoptysis (coughing up blood from the lungs/chest area) Hematemesis- “coffee-ground” in throw up Blood in feces that are black or occult bleeding Anemia and feeling faint and anxious Low blood pressure and tachycardia Hemophilia A or classis Hemophilia : a deficit or abnormality of clotting factor VIII and is the most common clotting disorder X- linked recessive trait Manifested in men, carried by women Signs and symptoms: There are varying degrees of severity Prolonged bleeding after minor tissue trauma Spontaneous bleeding into joints Possible hematuria or blood in feces Diagnostic Tests : Bleeding time and PT are normal, but the PTT, APTT and coagulation time are prolonged. Serum levels of factor VIII are low. Treatment : Desmopressin- can raise clotting factor levels in some clients by stimulating endothelium lining in the blood vessels to releases stored factor VII. Replacement factor VII is almost available for injections Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation : involves excessive bleeding and excessive clotting Clotting factors are reduced to a dangerous level Widespread, uncontrollable hemorrhage results Very poor prognosis with high fatality rate Complications in many primary problems such as: Obstetric complications
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Vascular occlusions and infarctions Lungs and blood vessels...

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