In fact the studys recommen dations are in line with

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marriage of the former Bush administration. In fact, the study’s recommen- dations are in line with most abstinence-plus programs in their emphasis on advising abstinence for 10- to 14-year-olds. Despite a growing recognition of the need for comprehensive sex education, a recent study primarily using aggregate data from the National Survey of Family Growth (Lindberg, Maddow-Zimet, & Boonstra, 2016) found that there is still government funding for abstinence-only sex education programs. The study also found that overall there has been a general decline in sex education in the period 2006−2013 in American schools especially among non-Hispanic white females, particularly those living in nonmetropolitan areas. Further, the study found no evidence that parents were filling the gap in sex education, but the authors point to some studies that at least some teens were turning to the Internet for needed information. On a more positive note, those authors found that “receipt of formal sex education is associated with healthier sexual behaviors and outcomes . . . and evaluations of specific sex education programs, particularly those taking a more comprehensive approach, have also found evidence of impacts on teen pregnancy and related sexual behaviors” (Lindberg, Maddow-Zimet, & Boonstra, 2016, p. 626). These positive findings, along with the steady and rather dramatic decrease in nonmarital groups among White teens and teens of color lend support to the need for the extension of more comprehensive sex education programs instituted by the Obama administration. Consequences for Teen Parents and Their Children Given the relationship between poverty and teen pregnancy, it should not be surprising that many researchers have found it difficult to “sort out the effects of early childbearing from the selective factors that lead some youth to become teen parents” (Furstenberg et al., 1989, p. 315). For most teen mothers, early childbearing immediately worsens their quality of life and often leads to a number of negative consequences as far as their educational, economic, and marital futures are concerned. Short-term studies have found that teen mothers are more likely to drop out of school, fail to find stable and remunerative employment, and enter into stable marriages than are women who begin childbearing in later life (Furstenberg et  al., 1989; Hofferth & Hayes, 1987; Maynard, 1997). In a rare long-term study, Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
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CHAPTER 11: Children, Social Problems, and Society 339 however, Furstenberg and his colleagues found that although teen mothers did not do as well as later childbearers, most teen mothers managed to stage a recovery in later life (Furstenberg et al., 1989). The key to such recoveries was the women’s successes in educational achievement, fertility control, and stable marriages. In a more recent study, Hofferth, Reid, and Mott (2001)
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