NE102 Lecture Notes 3

Make transgenic mice carrying the mutant app gene ad

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within an intact brain/organism? Make transgenic mice carrying the mutant APP gene AD tg mice enable us to validate, manipulate and study AD-related events in vivo (ie.,  within an intact brain)
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NE102 Final Exam Review - Adams 18:04 mRNA localization signals and proteins Traffic via microtubules MAP Kinase pathway RTKs have to be in a pair to be active Stick together when an RTK “bumps” into another RTK with a growth factor Epidermal Growth Factor and Nerve Growth Factor both activate the MAP Kinase  pathway EGF does not lead to neuronal differentiation but DOES lead to proliferation NGF does lead to neuronal differentiation  WHY? NGF’s sustained signaling = activation of NGF-specific genes that turn on TFs that  causes neuronal differentiation
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NE102 Final Exam Review - Muscedere 18:04 When do pair rule genes (for example) know to come into affect after gap genes? Bicoid and Nanos are the beginning of the cascade (Lecture 32, slide 14) Bicoid and Nanos are transcription factors Levels of each vary Levels of transcription factors turn on/off genes mRNA for bicoid and nanos are put into the cells by the mother  Specific AA residues between S5 and S6 responsible for ion selectivity because they  are found at the pore in which ions pass through AMPA vs NMDA receptors – how do they function together? Ex.) Glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter) – cause cells to be depolarized (increase in  sodium – excite postsynaptic cell) AMPA: glutamate binds and sodium is let through NMDA: Less selective, calcium AND sodium can pass through NMDA too Magnesium can bind and block NMDA receptors from calcium passing through Only when presynaptic and postsynaptic cell fire together does calcium pass through Glutamate in synapse and magnesium is not blocking NMDA receptor SUMMATION Summation is a passive electrical process ANALOGY  Spatial: multiple puffs of odor that exceed IPSPs to reach receptors Temporal: one puff strong enough to reach receptors
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