Involvement in volunteerism and community service ■ Voter turnout ➢ Religion in Emerging Adulthood ■ Religious practice and affiliation declines ■ Remains more important to American young adults than those in other developed nations ■ Construction of individualized faith ■ Associated with better adjustment ➢ Culture Change ■ Entry level positions require more education ■ Wealth and longevity free young adults from immediate entrance into workforce ■ Emerging adulthood limited to specific populations ➢ Fostering Success in Emerging Adulthood ■ Cognitive attributes ■ Emotional attributes ■ Social attributes ■ Social supports ■ Financial supports ■ Relationship with parents ❖ Theories of Psychosocial Development
➢ Erikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation ■ Intimacy ● Permanent commitment to intimate partner ● Giving up some independence, refining identity ● Secure identity associated with fidelity ● Fosters favorable friendships and work relationships ■ Isolation ● Hesitant to form close ties ● Fear of losing identity: ◆ Competitive ◆ Rejecting of differences ◆ Threatened by closeness ➢ Levinson’s Early Adult Season ■ Dream: image of self in adult world ● Men: career achievements ● Women: “split dreams” ■ Mentor ■ Second transition around age 30 ● Career -> Family ● Family -> Individual goals ➢ Valliant’s Adaptation to Life in Men ➢ Social Clock ■ Age-graded expectations for life events ■ Less rigid and greater differences than earlier generations ■ Adherence lends confidence and social stability ■ Intergenerational tensions/personal distress if not following or falling behind ❖ Close Relationships ➢ Differences in Mate Selection ■ Women ● Financial status, intelligence, ambition, moral character ● Same age or slightly older ● Psychological before physical intimacy ■ Men
● Attractiveness, domestic skills ● Younger partner ● Physical intimacy ➢ Selecting a Mate ■ Most select partners similar to themselves ■ Differences influenced by: ● Evolutionary perspective ● Biological and social forces ■ Higher value placed on attributes that contribute to relationship satisfaction ➢ Childhood Attachment and Adult Romantic Relationships ➢ Triangular Theory of Love ➢ Cultures and Experience of Love ■ Western Cultures ● Passion and respect = basis for marriage ● Dependency regarded as immature ■ Eastern Cultures
● Companionship, practical matters and obligations to others = basis for marriage ● Dependency viewed positively ● Arranged marriages = intentional act of building love ➢ Friendships in Early Adulthood ■ Friends: ● Typically similar in age, sex, SES, interests ● Enhance self-esteem ● Make life more interesting ■ Trust, intimacy and loyalty still important ■ Social media contributions ■ Siblings as friends ➢ Gender and Friendship ■
Chapter 15: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood ● Vision Changes ○ Presbyopia: inability to adjust focus to varying distances ○ Pupil shrinks, lens yellow, vitreous and neural changes ■ Poor vision in dim light ■ Increased sensitivity to glare ■ Decline in color discrimination ■ Retinal sensitivity decreases ○ Risk of glaucoma ●
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- Spring '08
- Developmental Psychology