The abrupt intake of air causes the person to awakenWill frequently have fatigueduring day d/t frequent awakening and/or morning headachesInitial treatment is weight loss, avoiding alcohol 4-6 hrs before bed and sleep position changesIf unsuccessful, CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) startedGood ol’ sleep apnea (OSA)
Etiology and diagnosis:Sports injuries, motor vehicle accidents, or physical assault Treatment:Pain relief with ice or cold compressesClosed reduction if non severe and seen within 24 hrsRhinoplasty: surgical reconstruction of the nose done to improve airflow and cosmetic appearance Nasal Fracture
Observe for frequent swallowing May indicate posterior nasal bleeding Semi-fowlers position once fully awake Avoid NSAIDs and aspirin Avoid forceful coughing and straining at stool (valsalva maneuver) May take 6-12 months before final result of surgery evident Rhinoplasty. . . Then what?
• Occurs most often in men age 60-80, but can strike anyone • Elderly men with long history of smoking and heavy alcohol abuse (ETOH) Predisposing factors Cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, lack of fruits and vegetables, GERD, infection with human papillomavirus Long exposure to asbestos, paint fumes, or wood or coal dust Cancer of the Larynx. . . AKA voice box
Persistent hoarseness that doesn’t respond to usual treatment S/S: hoarseness lasting more than 3 weeks, sore throat lasting longer than 2 weeks , difficulty swallowing, enlarged lymph nodes, blood tinged sputum, Diagnosis Visualizing the larynx via a laryngoscope CT scan of the larynx and throat MRI scan Microscopic examination of a sample of tissues taken from the tumor Cancer of the Larynx
Medical and surgical treatment Staged so that treatment can be designed for best results Radiation – 85% effective in treating early cancer Partial/total laryngectomy Partial: does not permanently eliminate voice sounds Total: entire larynx, epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, hyoid bone, cricoid cartilage, and part of trachea removed Newer “near total” preserves voice production and swallowing in advanced disease is used when possible Tracheostomy : trachea is diverted to a surgically constructed opening (stoma) in the neck No connection between nose and mouth and lower resp system Cancer of the Larynx
Endotracheal intubation – short term Tube through nose or mouth to protect airway Tracheostomy is done to: Assist or control ventilation by mechanical means over a prolonged period of time Facilitate suctioning of secretions in the air passages of patients unable to cough Prevent aspiration of oral and gastric secretions (as in unconscious or paralyzed patients) Bypass a constricted or obstructed upper airway Cancer of the Larynx
Types of tracheostomy tubes:
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- Fall '19
- Common cold, cancer of the larynx, Nasopharyngitis