Types of Workplace Behavior:Workplace behavior: pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectivenessPerformance behaviors: the total set of work-related behaviors an organization expects and individual to displayWithdrawl behaviors: absenteeism occurs when an individual does not show up for work when expected for legitimate or feigned reasonsoAbsenteeism: may be a symptom of other work-related problemsPhysical or psychological (office space, withdrawn)oWithdrawn: turnover occurs when individuals quit their jobs for work-related or personal reasonsOrganizational citizenship: behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organizationoExample citizen behavior: holding the door°
Managing Employee Motivation and Performance12/10/2015°Nature of MotivationMotivation: oset of forces that cause people to behave in certain waysothe goal of managers is to maximize desired behaviors and minimize undesirable behaviorsimportance of motivation in the workplaceodeterminants of individual performancemotivation: desire to do the jobability: capability to do the jobwork environment: resources to do the job°Historical Perspectives:The Traditional Approach: workers are interchangeable tools of productionoAssumptionManagers know more than workersEconomic gain $$$ is primary motivation for performance, work is inherently unpleasant The Human Relations Approach: emphasized role of special processes in workplaceoAssumptionEmployees want to feel useful and importantEmployees have strong social needs More important than $Maintaining the appearance of employee participation isimportantHuman Resources Approach: emphasized value of employees to organization
oAssumptionEmployee contributions are important and valuable to the employee and the organizationEmployee want to and are able to make genuine contributionsManagement’s job is to encourage participation and create a work environment that motivates employeesThe Need Heirarchy ApproachoMaslow’s Heirarchy Approach- (of Needs)*People must, in hierarchical order, satisfy five groups ofneeds1. physiological needs- for basic survival and biological function 2. security needs3. belongingness needs for love and affection4. esteem needs for positive self-image/self-respect and recognition and respect from others5. self-actualization needsoweakness in maslows theory:5 levels of need not always presentordering or importance needs is not always the same. Cultural differences can impact order and salience of needs.According to MASLOW:have to go in this orderoContributions to maslow’s theoryIdentifiable and categorized individual needsEmphasized importance of needs to motivationThe ERG Theory (Aldefer)oNeeds are grouped into overlapping categories:
Existence needs: physiological and security needsRelatedness needs: belongingness & esteem by others
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- Spring '08