These centers process data from many sources one

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These centers process data from many sources. One source of information is from other shore- based analysis centers. Because track and other data are shared frequently between systems, and because the intervening signal processing and transformation steps are extremely complicated, it is impossible to calculate the degree of common information between the two or more sites. Robust decentralized data fusion techniques, however, provides a formal mechanism for describing how the interaction between the different centers can occur. 3.3. Tiered Systems The previous two examples have shown how DDF can be used to support fusion between piers – whether they are UAVs or entire fusion centers. However, a key enabler of a sustainable military force is the notion of a tiered system [11], and is likely one of the more complex decentralized data collection, information processing and sharing systems. Conceptually, a tiered system is an integrated, multi-tier intelligence system encompassing space and air- based sensors linked to close-in and intrusive lower tiers (Figure 4). The lower tiers are not only the critical source of intelligence; they can also serve as a key cueing device for other sensors. Given the diversity of the assets, and the fact that information will need to be shared across the horizontal and vertical planes, and the environments in which the components of a tiered system will likely operate, it is not practical to envision a single data fusion architecture. Given the diversity of the information and processing nodes that may be participating in the network, it is more reasonable to expect that a given “system of systems” should be flexible, and employ a mix of architectures most suited for the operational environment, while maintaining interoperability across the spectrum. Future maritime scenarios may involve a collection of components from a tiered-system hierarchy, with both internal communications between the tiered-system components, as well as external communications with shore-based data fusion and analysis centers. Due to the different types of information flowing within the networks ranging from raw measurements to partial estimates, coupled with decentralized system control due to the size and complexity of such an aggregate system, it is likely that a decentralized approach will provide a robust, scalable and flexible approach to data fusion. 4. Summary and Conclusions Protecting a harbor against intentional and accidental threats is extremely difficult. Because they are focal points for the movement of people and cargo both in land and on water they are open systems. One means of identifying threats is to develop an accurate MCOP. However, to develop an accurate and consistent MCOP requires the integration of data / information from multiple sensing systems with different sensing modalities. To be practical, such a large sensing system must be cost effective to Figure 4: Tiered Systems Concept
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install, can be readily upgraded, and should be robust to sensor and communication failures. In this chapter we have argued that distributed data fusion networks exhibit many of these properties. We have
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  • Spring '14
  • Network topology

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