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Chapter 1 - Solution Manual

Areas where companies make choices among and between

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Unformatted text preview: areas where companies make choices among and between accounting principles (Depreciation method, inventory cost flow assumptions, etc). Therefore,, it is expected that financial reports are prepared in a manner that reflects the underlying economic events and activities of the reporting entity. This expectation was stressed in SAS No. 90 which stated, "In each SEC engagement, the auditor should discuss with the audit committee the auditor's judgments about the quality, not just the acceptability, of the entity's accounting principles applied in its financial reporting. The discussion should also include items that have a significant impact on the representational faithfulness, verifiability, and neutrality of the accounting information included in the financial statements. “ As a consequence, the choices of accounting principles made by one company are often different than those made by another company. Case 1-6 Another factor that influenced the development of accounting during the 19th century was the evolution of joint ventures into business corporations in England. The fact that many individuals, external to the business, needed information about the corporation's activities created the necessity for periodic reports. Additionally, the emerging existence of corporations created the need to distinguish between capital and income. The statutory establishment of corporations in England in 1845 stimulated the development of accounting standards, and laws were subsequently passed that were designed to safeguard 11 shareholders against improper actions by corporate officers. Dividends were required to be paid from profits, and accounts were required to be kept and audited by persons other than the directors. However, initially anyone could claim to be an accountant, as there were no organized professions or standards of qualifications. The industrial revolution and the succession of Companies Acts in England also served to increase the need for professional standards and accountants. In the later part of the 19th century, the industrial revolution arrived in the United States, and with it came the need for more formal accounting procedures and standards. This period was also characterized by widespread speculation in the securities markets, watered stocks, and large monopolies that controlled segments of the United States economy. In the 19 th century the progressive movement was established in the United States, and in 1898 the Industrial Commission was formed to investigate and report on questions relating to immigration, labor, agriculture, manufacturing, and business. Although no accountants were either on the Commission or used by the Commission, a preliminary report issued in 1900 suggested that an independent public accounting profession should be established in order to curtail observed corporate abuses....
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