Chapter 1 - Solution Manual

Discussion should also include items that have a

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discussion should also include items that have a significant impact on the representational faithfulness, verifiability, and neutrality of the accounting information included in the financial statements. “ As a consequence, the choices of accounting principles made by one company are often different than those made by another company. Case 1-6 Another factor that influenced the development of accounting during the 19th century was the evolution of joint ventures into business corporations in England. The fact that many individuals, external to the business, needed information about the corporation's activities created the necessity for periodic reports. Additionally, the emerging existence of corporations created the need to distinguish between capital and income. The statutory establishment of corporations in England in 1845 stimulated the development of accounting standards, and laws were subsequently passed that were designed to safeguard
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11 shareholders against improper actions by corporate officers. Dividends were required to be paid from profits, and accounts were required to be kept and audited by persons other than the directors. However, initially anyone could claim to be an accountant, as there were no organized professions or standards of qualifications. The industrial revolution and the succession of Companies Acts in England also served to increase the need for professional standards and accountants. In the later part of the 19th century, the industrial revolution arrived in the United States, and with it came the need for more formal accounting procedures and standards. This period was also characterized by widespread speculation in the securities markets, watered stocks, and large monopolies that controlled segments of the United States economy. In the 19 th century the progressive movement was established in the United States, and in 1898 the Industrial Commission was formed to investigate and report on questions relating to immigration, labor, agriculture, manufacturing, and business. Although no accountants were either on the Commission or used by the Commission, a preliminary report issued in 1900 suggested that an independent public accounting profession should be established in order to curtail observed corporate abuses. Although most accountants did not necessarily subscribe to the desirability of the progressive reforms, the progressive movement conferred specific social obligations on accountants. As a consequence accountants generally came to accept three general levels of progressiveness: (1) a fundamental faith in democracy, a concern for morality and justice and a broad acceptance of the efficiency of education as a major tool in social amelioration; (2) an increased awareness of the social obligation of all segments of society and introduction of the idea of accountability to the public of business and political leaders; and (3) an acceptance of pragmatism as the most relevant operative philosophy of the day.
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