9. List and describe the three kinds of longitudinal research designs: classical experimental design/true experiment (p.135-136), trend studies (p.34-35) and panel studies (p.35-36). Describe the two special types of trend and panel studies: cohort studies (p.36-37), follow-up studies. Contrast and compare their strengths and weaknesses. (book and lecture)*** SEE #7 10. What is panel attrition? What are the six main sources of panel attrition? What is subject fatigue? (p.35) (book and lecture)*** Panel attrition: losing people out of your panel (why?) o Respondent’s refusal to participate o Respondent’s inability to participate o Mortality o Researcher’s failure to locate respondent (researcher incompetence) o Researcher’s failure to keep accurate records (researcher stupidity)
o Researcher’s failure to interview respondent 11. What is a Unit of Analysis? (p.37) Why is this choice important? What is the ecological fallacy? (p.38) The reductionist fallacy? (p.40) (book and lecture) Unit of analysis – the level of social life on which a research question is focused, such as individuals, groups, towns, or nations o This is an important choice because you need to draw conclusions at the same level that you gather the data Common generalization fallacies: o Ecological fallacy – taking group (aggregate) data and applying it to the individual o Reductionist fallacy – taking data from an individual and applying it to a group 12. Be able to define the key terms for this chapter. (see Key Terms) *Anomalous – unexpected patterns in data that do not seem to fit the theory being proposed Cohort – individuals or groups with a common starting point Cohort design – a longitudinal study in which data are collected at two or more points in time from individuals in a cohort Confidentiality – provided by research in which identifying information that could be used to link respondents to their response is available only to designated research personnel for specific research needs Cross-sectional research design – a study in which data are collected at only one point in time Deductive research – the type of research in which a specific expectation is deduced from a general premise and then tested Dependent variable – a variable that is hypothesized to vary depending on or under the influence of another variable Direction of association – a pattern in a relationship between two variables – that is, the value of the variable tends to change consistently in relation to change in the other variable. The direction of association can be either positive or negative Ecological fallacy – an error in reasoning in which incorrect conclusions about individual-level processes are drawn from group-level data Group unit of analysis – a unit of analysis in which groups are the source of data and the focus of conclusions Hypothesis – a tentative statement about empirical reality involving a relationship between two or more variables
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- Fall '08