Purpose to establish clear lines of authority to

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Purpose to establish clear lines of authority to enhance productivity o Hurricane hit Galveston, TX 1900 About 6,000 people killed and half the town was destroyed Commission system o Legislative and executive functions then placed in hands of appointed City Commissioners or Heads of City Departments Sanitation, police, utilities o Each commissioner in charge of running a separate City Department o Plan adopted by hundreds of towns by 1914 Robert M. La Follette o Excellent example of efficiency at state level o Elected Gov of Wisconsin 1900 o Established legislative Reference Bureau o Bureau staffed by experts such as professors and specialists to provide research, advice and help in drafting legislation to promote social justice o Known as Wisconsin Idea o Highly publicized and copied o La Follette favored reforms such as Direct primary Stronger RR regulation Conservation of Natural Resources Workman’s compensation 7. Regulation o Some progressives favored trust busting o Example: use Sherman Anti Trust Act 1890 o Others favored regulating business rather than dissolving them 8. Social Justice o Covers variety of reforms, including: Labor legislation: some reformers called for legislation banning under aged children, 12 in most states, from working Others wanted shorter work hours for women and better working conditions o Prohibition Women’s Christian Temperance Union founded in 1874 Anti-Saloon League formed in 1893 Both battled prohibition Both favored prohibition amendment to constitution o Women’s suffrage Why were men against women voting? Most men believed woman’s role was to center in domestic realm Men believed women should serve mainly as wives and mothers By 19 th century, women organizing for more rights Became involved in social reform activities such as: Suffrage, temperance, moral reform, birth control A lot of this activity took place during Progressive Era
1869 National Woman Suffrage Association formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Group worked for woman suffrage, easier divorce laws and birth control 1 st victories for woman suffrage came in the West 1869 Wyoming territorial legislature extended suffrage to women 1870 – Utah 1893 – Colorado 1896 – Idaho National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) formed in 1890 1 st two presidents, Cady Stanton and Anthony 1893 group had 13,000 members 1917 had about 2 million members Supreme court erratic in passing legislation 1905 in Lochner v New York o Court voided 10 hour work day for bakers because it violated their “liberty contracts” to work as many hours as they wanted to o 1908 Muller v Oregon : upheld 10 hour work day for women on basis that women were different and would suffer an adverse effect on health with long hours Triangle shirtwaist company fire o Legislation to protect workers gained momentum from disasters o March 25, 1911 fire at Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NY o Exits were locked o 146 workers died o NAWSA o

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