All of the following are criteria for maintaining

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18. All of the following are criteria for maintaining Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium involving two alleles except: A. the frequency of all genotypes must be equal. B. there should be no natural selection. C. matings must be random. D. populations must be large E. gene flow from other populations must be zero. 19. In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.7. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele? 20. Which factor is the most important in producing the variability that occurs in each generation of humans? 21. Which of the following chromosomal mutations can increase the mass of DNA present in an organism's genome, creating superfluous DNA that may undergo further changes producing entirely new genes? 22. You are maintaining a small population of fruit flies in the laboratory by transferring the flies to a new culture bottle after each generation. After several generations, you notice that the viability of the flies has decreased greatly. Recognizing that small population size is likely to be linked to decreased viability, the best way to reverse this trend is to: A. cross your flies with flies from another lab. B. reduce the number of flies that you transfer at each generation. C. transfer only the largest flies. D. change the temperature at which you rear the flies. E. shock the flies with a brief treatment of heat or cold to make them more hardy.
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23. Through time, the movement of people on Earth has steadily increased. This has altered the course of human evolution by increasing: 24. The Darwinian fitness of an individual is measured by: 25. Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept, is (are) correct? I. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation. II. Biological species are the model used for grouping extinct forms of life. III. The biological species is the largest unit of population in which successful reproduction is possible.
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