Copy of Anthro 41A Final Review.docx

The middle class grew and was granted political power

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The middle class grew and was granted political power, but it was only male, white Protestants. Usually the lower classes and women were marginalized How did Calvinism promote economic success as a sign of moral virtue? Why did Calvinists believe they should hold political power? How did this viewpoint contribute to the rise of capitalist nation-states? o Noblesse oblige: the nobility is supposed to protect society, including the poor. The middle class was strongly criticized for being immoral and their “greed” was seen to be dangerous. o The Parable of the Talents: those that profit are considered to do good while those that do not are considered to be wicked and lazy o Calvinism also believed that the nobility were a problem and wanted to get ride of them. They argued that “ungodly kinds” should not be obeyed and they rejected the rule of certain kinds o King Philip II of Spain – they formed an elected government known as the states’ general How was the rise of capitalism tied to the rise of modern nation-states and the end of the tributary system? How was capitalism directly tied into these new political formations? How did a change in religious attitudes ultimately influence these political/capitalist changes? What sort of new inequalities did (and does) capitalism tend to produce in nation-states? o End of the tributary system – Treaty of Westphalia (1648) led to a capitalist economic political system o Nation-states and their own set territory and their own religion o Nation-states would have become capitalist and power would be shared between the nobility and bourgeoisie o The lower class especially did not benefit from this system o White, male Protestant benefited the most from this system
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How were new kinds of inequality built into the newly formed capitalist "modern" nation-states of the late 1500s and 1600s? (Hint: race and wealth) How was this structured differently from the inequalities found in feudalist or tributary systems? Did capitalism give political power to everyone, or only those people who were considered “worthy” by virtue of their economic positions? Why or why not? o Capitalism continued to marginalized the lower classes and women o The capitalist Laws: The bourgeoisie favored the middle class and gave them political power o This led to inequalities that previously focused on only social hierarchy, but now it focused on race and wealth. o The inequalities were focused on socio-economic factors, creating a disparity amongst those who were of different race, gender, and economic wealth
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