Course Hero Logo

Figure 4 the new contingency red dashed line will

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 19 - 21 out of 29 pages.

Figure 4.The new contingency (red dashed line) willreinforce button clicking if it is faster than those clickspeeds in the Extinction Zone.010203040Clicking SpeedFrequencyVerySlowSuperFastExtinctionZoneReinforcementZone
20By applying these six principles to the acquisition of skills within their game, thedesigners of Plants vs. Zombies created one of the most popular video games ever. Ifyou dissect any enormously popular videogame, you will find these six principles areclosely followed. Take, for example, GuitarHero; one of the most widely played gamesin the 2000s. Its designers identified theterminal behavior (rapidly pressing fretbuttons and the strum bar at precise times,as indicated by scrolling notes on thescreen) and began by verbally reinforcingsimple response-approximations such aspressing the strum bar (“That’s right!” saysthe game’s narrator) while pressing each ofthe fret buttons (“Sounding good!”).After the novice player mastered these first approximations, the game presenteda meticulously designed series of songs, each slightly more difficult than the last one.These successive approximations of the terminal guitar-playing performance allowedplayers to earn thousands of reinforcers along the way. These reinforcers included clean-sounding musical chords, audience excitement (the Rock meter going into the greenzone), points (another token economy), and access to new songs; the latter provided onlyafter the prior response-approximation (song) is mastered. Like Plants vs. Zombies,Guitar Hero players lost themselves in the game – flow – and the game’s designers wererewarded handsomely for following the six principles of effective shaping.Try it at Home:The Shaping GameFor decades, students have honed their shaping skills by playing the “shapinggame.” The object of the game is to shape a novel terminal-behavior (something theplayer doesn’t normally do), but without telling the player what they’re supposed to do.For example, the teacher might choose “stand on a chair” as the terminal behavior. Then,using the six principles of shaping, the teacher reinforces successive approximations (forexample, walking toward the chair) until the player emits the terminal behavior.If you want to play, identify a player and ask them to leave the room. The remainingpeople are the teachers, but only one of them will deliver the conditioned reinforcer – a“click-click” from a clicker works well, as it saliently marks the correct response-approximation when it occurs.Each click-click signals a reduction in the delay to thebackup reinforcer – the player wins the game by emitting the terminal behavior.While the player is out of the room, the teachers decide what terminal behaviorthey want the player to do. Think of something fun, but not anything insensitive,dangerous, or so complex that the player will never get it – you want the game to be fun,safe, and brief. Principle 1 invites the teachers to objectively define the terminal behavior.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 29 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture