Papacy had thus been alternately in the hands of the

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papacy had thus been alternately in the hands of the Roman nobles (Tusculum, Crescentian, etc) or the German king. The reformers were to change this. By their definition, a free election meant that a bishop was to be elected by the clergy of his cathedral chapter, and the people's only function was to hear who had been elected and applaud the divinely inspired selection. The Election Decree transformed the cardinals into a body of papal electors that was later to be called the college of cardinals. At the same synod Nicholas II, apparently inspired by Humbert, issued a condemnation of lay investiture. This was to be the beginning of what has come to be called the Investiture Controversy. Nicholas II's decrees were directed not against the emperor but against the Roman aristocracy. The pope's willingness to work with lay authorities is underscored by his alliance with both the Normans and, especially, with the Duke of Tuscany, his great protector. The Papacy of Gregory VII (1073-1085) Hilderbrand's election was stage managed in 1073 by Hugh Candidus, a cardinal priest who was one of Leo IX's companions from Lorraine (Southern, Making , 144). During the burial of the deceased Pope Alexander II, Hugh rose in the pulpit and addressed the throng of clergy and laity: “Brethren, you know that from the days of Pope Leo it is Hildebrand who has exalted the Holy Roman Church and freed this city. Wherefore, since we cannot have anyone better fitted to be elected as Roman Pontiff, we elect him now--a man ordained in our church, a man known to you all, and approved by all." (Hugh was soon to transfer his loyalty to Henry IV.) Hildebrand was acclaimed pope without deliberation and discussion by the other cardinals and took the name Gregory VII in honor of his mentor the disgraced Pope Gregory VI. Gregory VII’s election was irregular . It failed to follow the procedures established in 1059 ; in particular there had been no consultation of the emperor or the imperial court. The irregularity of the election was later to be cited by Henry IV as evidence of Gregory VII’s illegitimacy as pope. Hildebrand was a controversial figure, even in his own day. St Hugh of Cluny told an anecdote (that found its way into William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum , probably via Eadmer) that when Hildebrand was a legate he and Hildebrand were riding together in a large company. Hugh fell back and was thinking about the character of the legate, and especially about his pride and self-
seeking, when Hildebrand wheeled his horse about, and said, 'It's a lie; I seek not my own glory, but that of the Holy Apostles [Saints Peter and Paul].' Hildebrand had grown up as a monk in Rome, and his dual affinities were to the city/see and to the monastic profession. In Rome his allies were the new urban families of financiers and businessmen, the Pierleoniand Frangipani, who used their fortunes in support of the reformers. His most stalwart noble supporter was Mathilda of Tuscany. Unlike his recent predecessors, Gregory VII lived in Rome, and only ventured north once, the journey that was to end at Canossa, and south once,

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