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Criminology Lecture Notes3

Professionalism softness and peace middle class we

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Professionalism, Softness and Peace . Middle class – we don’t necessarily want to work hard – everyone wants an easy job . Value our rights to defend ourselves (seen through US foreign policy – threaten other nation with violence – arms race) . In our mainstream middle class, we value violence and aggressiveness
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. Delinquents have luxury of concentrating/specializing in these values they get from mainstream culture . Thorstein Veblen . Leisure Class: Young people who don’t want to have jobs – emphasize their personal qualities . Because young people don’t have to work, they can indulge in all of these delinquent values . Matza and Sykes on Subterranean values: “ . Techniques of neutralization . Denial of Responsibility . When person denies the responsibility – compelled to commit crime outside of control . Conceives killing as a technical act – someone hired hitman and someone else is pulling the trigger . Denial of Injury . Redefining the criminal act as something which does no harm . Redefine rape as sex – redefining the act as sex, the act seems harmless and the perpetrator feels no guilt and can deny injury . Hitman says killing was just business, just his job – business and jobs are typically not injurious . mala in se . mala prohibita . Denial of the Victim . Denying the victim is a person . Hitman doesn’t want to know anything about the person he is going to kill as a person – person he is going to kill is simply a target . Can deny victim by defining self as the true victim . “I’m the real victim” – Getting justice for harm that has been done to one self . There are people that are legitimate targets . These people seem to be legitimate targets – rights can be denied – rights of prisoners/homosexuals constantly denied . There are classes of people who’s victimhood and rights can be denied . Condemnation of the Condemner . There are values and obligations which are above the law . Ex. A father may embezzle money to send their children to an expensive school Lecture 3/28/2012 . Akers: Learning Crime . Attempt to correct errors in Sutherland’s differential theory of learning . Finds certain theoretical black boxes in Sutherland’s original models . Sutherland: Differential Association definition actions . Sutherland doesn’t say how a person acquires these definitions of the law . Just because the person has all kinds of ideas not favorable to the law does not mean that he/she will act on these opinions of the law . Sutherland -- Black box between definition and actions
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. Just because you believe that a certain law should not exist, does not mean you are going to go break the law . Sutherland does not tell us why some individuals associate with criminals . Why does the person engage in certain differential associations with different criminal groups . Types of reinforcement and punishment Reinforcement (probability of response increases) Punishment (probability of response (repeat of behavior) decreases) Positive (Something is introduced) Something of value is added Something averse is added
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