Butts and Rich 2015 also state Penders health promotion model was formulated

Butts and rich 2015 also state penders health

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rather than aiding in prevention. Butts and Rich (2015) also state, “Pender’s health promotion model was formulated using inductive reasoning with existing research, which is a common approach to the building of middle-range theories” (p. 450).
5NURSING THEORY ANALYSISPender’s model is primarily based on two theories of health behavior: expectancy-value theory and social-cognitive theory. The expectancy-value theory explains that people are more likely to work toward goals that are of value to them, while the social-cognitive theory proposes that the greater a person’s self-efficacy for a behavior, the more likely the person will engage in it(Peterson & Bredow, 2017). Pender explicitly defined the three major concepts in her health promotion model as: (1) individual characteristics and experiences, (2) behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and (3) behavioral outcome (Butts & Rich, 2015). Within each of these concepts, specific, detailed sub-concepts are incorporated to the model as well. Pender’s concepts are operationally defined due to their ability of leading to research questions and developing other theories. “The health promotion model was formulated with the goal of integrating what is known about health-promoting behavior to generate questions for further testing” (Alligood, 2018, p. 329). Pender consistently uses her concepts throughout her theory, applying them to her propositions and assumptions and relating them to one another. The three major concepts are linked as they all stem towards the overall goal of promoting positive health behavior. Characteristics and ExperiencesThe concept of personal characteristics and experiences is that which makes up an individual’s identity. The sub-concepts within this concept are prior related behavior and personal factors (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2014). Pender believed that prior behavior indirectly influenced health-promoting behavior through perceptions of self-efficacy, benefits, barriers, and activity-related affect or emotions (Pender, Mardaugh, & Parsons, 2006). Many prior unhealthy behaviors turn into habits for individuals, which makes it harder for the individual to stop partaking in the unhealthy behavior. Personal factors are categorized into
6NURSING THEORY ANALYSISbiological factors, psychological factors, and sociocultural factors. Some factors, such as age, ethnicity, and gender, are immutable to change, whereas other factors, such as self-esteem and self-motivation, are amenable to change (Pender et al., 2006). These factors are predictive of a given behavior and are shaped by the nature of the target behavior being considered (Pender, 1996). Behavioral-Specific Cognitions and AffectsPender (1996) underlines that behavior-specific variables have motivational significance and are modifiable through nursing actions. Perceived benefits of action, perceived barriers to action, perceived self-efficacy, activity-related affect, interpersonal influences, and situational influences are the sub-concepts that lie within this concept (Pender et al., 2014). Perceived benefits of action are anticipated positive outcomes that will result from health behavior, while perceived barriers to action are anticipated blocks and personal costs of undertaking a given behavior (Pender et al., 2006).

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