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High performance roles task oriented roles ensure

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→ high performance Roles task-oriented roles = ensure that tasks of group are accomplished e.g. initiators, information seekers/providers, summarizers, elaborators, consensus makers maintenance roles = maintain good relations within the group e.g. harmonizers, compromisers, gatekeepers, encouragers - members flexible enough to play multiple roles → desired individual roles = are not productive for keeping team on task (more concerned for himself than the team) Diversity group diversity = presence of a heterogeneous mix of individuals in a group (in terms of functional & demographic/cultural characteristics) - *may lead to creative / unique solutions - lack of common perspective → spend more time discussing issues (dec. possibility that a weak alternative is chosen) - if team members try to learn about & understand each other @ beginning → +ve effect on team Possible conflicts… - informational diversity → constructive conflict - demographic diversity → interpersonal conflict - value-goal diversity → most damage, hard to function Size - < 10 members is best (if too many → break into sub-teams) - too many → cohesiveness & mutual accountability declines ppl talk less, Social Loafing inc. social loafing = tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually why? Dispersion of responsibility & belief that others not carrying fair share Member Flexibility flexible individuals can complete others’ tasks → high performance Members’ Preference for Teamwork when ppl who prefer to work alone are required to team up → threat to team’s morale ( 士士 )
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P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE WORK DESIGN Autonomy freedom Skill Variety opportunity to utilize diff. skills & talents Task Identity ability to complete a whole & identifiable task / product Task Significance participation in task / project that has substantial impact on others PROCESS Common Purpose - provides direction, momentum, commitment for members - broader than specific goals Specific Goals - energize teams, maintain team’s focus on achieving results - facilitate (make easy) clear communication - should be challenging (which raises team performance) Team Efficacy = having confidence in team itself & belief that they can succeed cohesiveness = degree to which team members are attracted to each other & are motivated to stay on the team - help build efficacy Cohesiveness H IGH L OW Performance Norms H IGH High productivity Moderate productivity L OW Low productivity Moderate to Low productivity Socio-emotional cohesiveness = sense of togetherness that develops when individuals derive emotional satisfc’n from group participation Instrumental cohesiveness = …when group members are mutually dependent on one another b/c they believe they could not achieve the group’s goal by acting separately How to inc. team efficacy? (inc. confidence!) - help team achieve small successes - - skill training Managed Level of Conflict - if no conflict → apathy, disengagement, lower performance level, forget to consider key issues, unaware of important aspects of situation
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