Module_03_Lab_Worksheet_04222018.docx

Materials automatic blood pressure cuff stethoscope

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Materials Automatic blood pressure cuff Stethoscope Large paper roll Markers/Colored Pencils/Pens- Blue, Red, Black Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions. Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these questions. 1. How does a condition like heart failure (congestive heart failure) influence cardiac output? Heart Failure is the inability of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood while maintaining a regular HR. Cardiac output is basically measuring the efficiency of the heart’s ability to pump blood thereby being directly affected by Heart Failure (Betts, 2017) The Heart may compensate by beating faster or the body may compensate by shunting blood (causing cooler extremities) or by vasoconstricting and increasing BP, allowing more blood to reach vital organs (Heart Failure, 2014). 2. Why is hypertension (high blood pressure) sometimes called the ‘silent killer’? What are some of the complications of hypertension, specifically to the blood vessels? Htn is referred to as the silent killer because it usually has no symptoms until after considerable damage has been done to the heart and arteries. Htn causes atherosclerosis which leads to Heart Failure, Stroke, MI, Kidney Disease, and Eye Disease (High Blood Pressure, 2107). 3. What do the Lub and Dub sounds of the heart represent specifically. How do they relate to the cardiac cycle? When is a heart murmur heard within the cardiac cycle? The Lub is caused by atrial contraction or the AV valves closing, the dub is caused by the contraction of the ventricles or the semilunar valves closing (Betts, 2017). A heart murmur is described a whooshing sound heard when a cardiac valve does not close properly, it may be referred to as grade I through
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VI and systolic or diastolic depending on where it is heard in the heart (Heart Murmurs, 2018). 4. How does vasoconstriction and vasodilation of an artery influence cardiac output and blood pressure? What specific portion (section) of the nervous system controls the mechanisms of vasoconstriction and vasodilation within the arteries? In the same way the diameter of a pipe determines pressure in a water line (pressure = Force/Area) so vasodilation/constriction determines Blood Pressure by expanding and contracting vessels according to the body’s needs. Blood Pressure relates to Cardiac Output in that it determines the force at which blood needs to be ejected from the heart in order to move in to the great vessels. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for vasoconstriction/dilation (Betts, 2017).
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