Quantitative methods new design options new old

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Quantitative Methods NEW DESIGN OPTIONS New Old Dynamic, learning Stable Info rich Info is scarce Global Local Small & large Large Product/customer oriented Functional oriented Skills oriented Job oriented Team oriented Individual oriented Involvement oriented Command/control oriented Lateral/networked Hierarchical Customer oriented Job requirements oriented Team S t r u c t u r e modify internal boundaries = use of teams as central device to coordinate work activities - break down departmental barriers - decentralize decision making to work team level - requires generalist & specialist employees Modular Organization modify external boundaries = small core org. that outsources major business functions - outsource many functions; concentrate on what it does best (e.g. focusing on design / marketing rather than production) - management directly oversees activities that are done in-house & coordinates, controls external relations (w/ other org’s that perform sales, marketing, service functions for the modular org.) Advantages - can devote technical & managerial talent to most critical activities - respond more quickly to environmental changes - inc. focus on customers & markets Disadvantage s - reduces management’s control over business - rely on outsiders to get job done (dec. operational control) Virtual Organization = continually evolving network of independent companies (suppliers, customers, even competitors) linked together to share skills, costs, access to one another’s markets - units of diff. firms join together in alliance to pursue common strategic objectives - participants give up some of their control & act interdependently - may not have central office, org. chart, or hierarchy (org’s come together) Advantages - org’s can share costs & skills - provide access to global markets - inc. market responsiveness Disadvantage s - companies give up operational & strategic control to work together - managers need to be more flexible & acquire new skills New-Style VS. Old-Style Organizations
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P ART 5: R EORGANIZING THE W ORKPLACE (build relations w/ other companies, negotiate win-win deals, find compatible partners, develop appropriate comm’n systems) Boundaryless (T-Form) Organization break down internal & external boundaries = org that seeks to eliminate chain of command, have limitless spans of control, replace departments w/ empowered teams - relies heavily on technology → “technology-based” (T-form) org ** networked computers Break down barriers internally : - flatten hierarchy & create cross-hierarchical teams (top exec + middle managers + supervisors + operative employees) - use Participative decision-making & 360-degree performance appraisal (peers & others above AND below evaluate) Break down barriers externally (constituencies [ SUPPLIERS , CUSTOMERS ] & geography): - globalization - telecommuting Advantages - offer best talents of employees across several diff. org’s - enhance cooperation across functions, divisions, external groups - quicker response time to environment Disadvantage s - difficult to manage (hard to overcome political, authority boundaries) - time-consuming M ODULAR S TRUCTURE V IRTUAL S TRUCTURE
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