Section 2 changes in medieval society the feudal

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Section 2: Changes in Medieval Society The feudal system declines as agriculture, trade, finance, towns, and universities develop. A Growing Food Supply Changes in Agriculture • From 800 to 1200 the climate warms, opening more land to farming • Changes in technology result in more food production
Switch to Horsepower • Harnessed horses replace oxen in pulling plows and wagons • Horses plow three times as much a day, increasing food supply The Three-Field System • Around 800 three-field systemused—plant two fields, let one rest • This produces more food and leads to population increase The Guilds Development of Guilds Guilds develop—organization of people in the same occupation • Merchant guilds begin first; they keep prices up, provide security • Skilled artisans, men and women, form craft guilds • Guilds set standards for quality, prices, wages, working conditions • Guilds supervise training of new members of their craft • The wealth of guilds influences government and economy Commercial Revolution Fairs and Trade • Europe sees Commercial Revolution—changes in business and trade • Trade fairs are held several times a year in towns • Trade routes open to Asia, North Africa, and Byzantine ports Business and Banking • Merchants develop credit to avoid carrying large sums of money • Merchants take out loans to purchase goods, and banking grows Society Changes • Economic changes lead to the growth of cities and of paying jobs Urban Life Flourishes Growing Urban Population • 1000–1150, Europe’s population rises from 30 million to 42 million • Most towns are small, but they help drive change Trade and Towns Grow Together
• Towns are uncomfortable: crowded, dirty, full of fire hazards • Serfs can become free by living in a town for a year and a day Merchant Class Shifts the Social Order • Feudal lords tax and govern towns, causing resentment • Towns are taken over by burghers—town merchants The Revival of Learning The Muslim Connection • Christian scholars read translations of Greek works made by Muslims • Crusaders return with Muslim knowledge of navigation, ships, weapons Scholars and the University • Groups of scholars gather to teach and learn; form universities • Written works not in Latin but in vernacular—everyday language Aquinas and Medieval Philosophy Thomas Aquinas, a religious scholar, mixes Greek and Christian thought • He is a scholastic—university man; debates issues to increase knowledge Section 3: England and France Develop As the kingdoms of England and France begin to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolve. England Absorbs Waves of Invaders Early Invasions • Danish Vikings invade England throughout the 800s • Alfred the Great and his successors gradually unite England • Danish king Canute invades in 1016, uniting Vikings and Anglo-Saxons The Norman Conquest • In 1066, England is invaded for last time by William the Conqueror • He defeats his rival for English crown, becomes king • William keeps one-fifth of land; hands out rest to supporters England’s Evolving Government King and Vassal

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