Draw a dot and cross diagram for the peroxide ion

This preview shows page 7 - 12 out of 16 pages.

Draw a ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram for the peroxide ion. Show outer electrons only. [2] [Total: 11]
Image of page 7
8 9701/22/O/N/19 © UCLES 2019 3 A series of reactions for phosphorus and its compounds is shown. P PC l 5 excess C l 2 reaction 1 H 2 O reaction 2 H 3 PO 4 (NH 4 + )(H 2 PO 4 ) NH 3 reaction 3 (a) (i) State what you would observe in reaction 1 . ............................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) State the type of reaction that occurs in reaction 2 . ....................................................................................................................................... [1] (iii) H 3 PO 4 can be produced by direct reaction of phosphorus with nitric acid. P + 5HNO 3 H 2 O + 5NO 2 + H 3 PO 4 Use oxidation numbers to show that this reaction is a redox reaction. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) Reaction 3 is a neutralisation reaction in which NH 3 acts as a base. (i) Explain how NH 3 acts as a base in reaction 3 . ............................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) Draw the three-dimensional shape of the ammonium ion, NH 4 + . Give the bond angle. bond angle = .............................. ° [1] (iii) State the industrial importance of compounds such as (NH 4 + )(H 2 PO 4 ). ....................................................................................................................................... [1]
Image of page 8
9 9701/22/O/N/19 © UCLES 2019 [Turn over (c) PC l 5 can be used to convert alcohols to halogenoalkanes. (i) Write an equation for the reaction of C 2 H 5 OH with PC l 5 to form C 2 H 5 C l . ....................................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) State the type of reaction in (i) . ....................................................................................................................................... [1] (iii) Halogenoalkanes can also be prepared by reacting alcohols with hydrogen halides, such as HC l and H I . HC l is prepared using NaC l and concentrated H 2 SO 4 . H I is prepared by reacting Na I with concentrated H 3 PO 4 . Suggest why H I is not prepared by the reaction of Na I with concentrated H 2 SO 4 . ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... [2] (iv) The rate of the hydrolysis reaction of halogenoalkanes with NaOH(aq) is dependent on the halogen that is bonded to carbon. State and explain the order of reactivity when NaOH(aq) reacts separately with C 2 H 5 C l , C 2 H 5 Br and C 2 H 5 I . ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... [2] [Total: 13]
Image of page 9
10 9701/22/O/N/19 © UCLES 2019 4 Prenol is a naturally occurring organic molecule found in many fruits. It contains both an alkene and an alcohol functional group. C C prenol H CH 2 OH H 3 C H 3 C (a) Prenol can be formed by the reaction of G with NaOH(aq). Complete the diagram to show the mechanism of the reaction between G and NaOH(aq) to form prenol. Include all relevant charges, partial charges, lone pairs and curly arrows. C C prenol H CH 2 OH H 3 C H 3 C C C G H C C l H H H 3 C H 3 C [2] (b) Prenol reacts with steam to form a mixture of three isomers, J , K and L , of molecular formula C 5 H 12 O 2 . (i) When J is heated with excess acidified potassium dichromate( VI ) it forms an organic product which shows no reaction with 2,4-DNPH. Draw the structure of J . [1]
Image of page 10
11 9701/22/O/N/19 © UCLES 2019 [Turn over K and L are stereoisomers with molecular formula C 5 H 12 O 2 . K and L both react when heated with excess acidified potassium dichromate( VI ) to form M , C 5 H 8 O 3 .
Image of page 11
Image of page 12

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 16 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • UCLES

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors