a. divergent b. convergent c. transform fault d. a and b. e. a and c. 7. The process of subduction is associated with what type of plate boundary? a. divergent b. convergent c. transform fault d. a and b. e. a and c. 8. A plate is typically about ______ thick. 100km 9. The age of the Earth is about _____ years old. 4.5 bil and 4500 mil are equal 10. The Principle of Uniformitarianism states that: key to the past 11. The depth from the surface of the Earth to the mantle-outer core boundary is about _____ km. a. 300 b. 3,000 c. 1,000 d. 100 e. 100,000 12. For the Earth’s crust,the two most abundant elements are, in order: must be in correct order 13. The asthenosphere: mantle d. a and b e. a, b and c. 14. The diameter of the Earth is about ______ km.
15. Which of the following minerals shows a double chain type of polymerization of SiO 4 tetrahedra? a. olivine b. amphibole (DC) c. pyroxene (SC) d. feldspar e. diamond. 16. Ionic substitution is possible between which pair of elements? a. iron and aluminum b. silicon and oxygen c. sodium and potassium d. calcium and magnesium e. none of the above. (fe>mg) ( na>ca) 17. The bonds between the sodium and chlorine ‘atoms” in the mineral halite are of the ________ variety. 18. Isotopes of carbon all contain the same number of ______. above 19. Which of the following lists minerals in correct order from hardest to softest on Mohs Scale? topaz, gypsum, quartz e. talc, feldspar, diamond. 20. The basic building block of all silicate minerals is the ______ ion: watch the chargea. (SiO 4 ) 4+ b. (SiO 3 ) 4- c. (SiO 5 ) 4- d. (SiO 4 ) 4- e. none of the above 21. Which of the following elements forms an anion? a. sodium(NA+) b. silicon(SI4) c. oxygen d. chlorine e. c and d. 22. The bonds between the silicon and oxygen “atoms” in the tetrahedral structure of silicates are the _____ variety. 23. Diamond and graphite, different form of carbon are said to be: 24. The carbonate (complex) ion cannot polymerize. a. true b. false. 25. A mineral that shows good platy (sheet) cleavage resulting from the breakage of van der Waals bonds, is: a. quartz b. amphibole c. feldspar d. mica e. halite 26. The geological name for the mineral whose chemical composition is sodium chloride is: 27. Which of the following properties of minerals is least suitable as a diagnostic feature?